This is how its status rose from being an ordinary sport to a right of which negligence in its fulfilment will attract punishment. It is as a result of this that self-destruction or negligence towards the healthiness of the body falls under the rubric of punishable acts
Libraries have witnessed numerous classical resources that discuss types of sports, how they are carried out and certain shariah guiding rules and ethical regulations that must be observed while practicing sport. Below are the details of those literatures in the order of types of sports:
First: Equestrian Sport: this is the oldest and the most important of the Arab sports as it is tied to the defence of the nation and chasing enemies. It is of four types:
1. Horse riding
3. Bow throwing
4. Chasing with sward.
A person is not called a knight unless he had a mastery of all the four pillars of equestrians mentioned above. Some important literatures on this are: (Hilyatul Fursan wa Shi’arul Shuj’an) by Ibn Hudhayl al-Andalusy (363 A.H). it is a book authored on the horse, names of its limbs, it’s colour, what is liked in it, how it is selected, how to learn its riding and how it is used in competition. It also entails the mentioning of swards, spears, bows, arrows, shields and others that are linked with equestrian.
Among them is (Nihayatus Sul wal-Umniyah fi Ta’allum A’malil Farusiyyah) by: Muhammad bn ‘Isa bn Ismail al-Aqsra’i (749 A.H) who lived at the time of Mamluki. It is a very bulky literature of about 600 pages. The author mentions in it, the science of throwing, crossbow and some other sciences. He also mentions some ointment that a knight needs for his horse. Despite the fact that the author was not a religious scholar, he mentioned some verdicts and sharia issues that the knight and the horse need.
(Al-Farusiyyah al-Muhammadiyyah) by Ibn al-Qayyim (751A.H), it is a comprehensive literature in the aspect that it touched. It explains the shari’a injunction on the aspects of equestrian sport and the details of how it is practiced, likewise those things that a learner needs to know and the ethics that need to be observed while practicing the sport.
Among the literatures is (An-Nafahat al-Miskiyyah fi Sina’atil Farusiyyah) by Ahmad bn Muhammad al-Hamawi (1142). This is one of the later literatures in this aspect. It was written as a gift for one of the governors of Egypt during the era of Sultan Muhammad Rabi’u. it consists of an introduction and nineteen chapters.
It begins with the virtue of equestrian sport, throwing and the commencement of equestrian sport. With regards to the structure of the book, he mentions horses, its names, its illnesses, how it is controlled and the necessary skills for throwing while on the horse. He also touches on sharia issues like the permissibility of competing with horses, camel, and throwing with a crossbow.
Secondly, hunting: the numerous books authored on hunting indicate that hunting was given an utmost attention in the Islamic civilization. In the third century of Hijrah (precisely 296), the king Abdullah bn al-Mu’tazz wrote (al-Jawarih wal-Sayd). In the fourth century of Hijrah (358AH), Muhammad bn Husain who was popularly known as Bakshajam wrote his famous literature titled (al-Masayid wal matarid) which is regarded one of the most important literatures in that aspect. His literature begins with how to train horse on games catching. He also opened another chapter on the instruments needed in hunting as he mentioned four types of games namely; falcon, Peregrine Falcon, Hawk and eagle. He also opened a chapter on games and what is permissible and prohibited in them. He also did not forget to open a chapter on sea-games, and in between the book, textual and poetic evidences.
Among the literatures is (Ahkamus Sayd wat-Tard ‘Indal Arab) by Qasim bn ‘Ali az-Zainabi (563).
Also, Kitab (al-Bayzarah) by unknown authored, edited and published by Muhammad Karl Aliy in the middle of the century.
Intihazul Furaz fil Sayd wal Qans by Hamzah an-Nashiry from the people of the tenth century. It is a comprehensive book in this area. It is a book that was described by the author of Kashfuz Zunun in his statement: (it is an unprecedented book). The book consists of an introduction and eight chapters, the first three chapters of which touched on hunting in the Qur’an, the Hadith as well as those who hunted amongst the prophets, while the fourth chapter is on the names of animals that are used for hunting. The fifth is on the permissible and prohibited games. The sixth is on rulings of hunting, while the seventh and the eight chapters are basically on poetic and textual narrations on hunting.
Among the latest literatures during the era Uthmani is (Risalah fil Sayd bil Barudah) by Ali Afandi
Thirdly: Throwing: there are a lot of literatures on it some of which were written by the Muslim scholars. They include; al-Wadih fil Ramy wan-Nashab by Imam al-Tabari (310AH) as it was mentioned by the author of Kashful-Dhunun. Also, (Bayan al-Istidlal Ala Bayan Mujtalis-Sibaq wan-Nidal by Ibnul Qayyim (751AH), and (as-Samah fi Akhbarir-Ramah), and Garsul Ansab fir Ramy bin Nashab both are the work of Shuyuti (911AH). Also as-Sabq wan-Nidal by Abu Musa Sulaiman popularly known as al-Hamid (305 AH), and (Nihayah Fi ‘Ilmir-Rimayah) by Sharafuddeen Husain bn al-Yuniny (701AH) as mentioned by Haji Khalifah. And also (al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah fi ‘Ilmur-Rimayah) by some of the later scholars of the eight century, the book which was completed in the year (775 AH), also (Tuhfatut-Tullab fi ‘Ilmur-Rimayah wan-Nashab) by Sulaiman bn Khalil bn Sulaiman ar-Rami, and Al-Kifayah fi ‘Ilmur Rimayah by Muhammad bn ‘Ali al-Hanafi al-Hashimi al-‘Alawi. Also (al-Kifayah fi ‘Ilmur-Rimayah) by Asil al-Hanafi.
Fourthly, many other Sports: the heritage Library is rich in terms of books that discuss different types of sports such as: (al-Ibahah fi ‘Ilmis-Sibahah) by as-Sayuti (911AH)
And the book (Al-La’b bil Bunduq) by Abi Abdullah Muhammad bn Ismail al-Baghdadi (588AH) popularly known as Ibnul Baqqal. It is indeed comprehensive in that aspect as the author classified the work based on the classification of the books of Jurisprudence (Fiqh) on Alsinatir-Ramah as described by the author of Hidayatul Arifin. Also (al-Masara’ah Ilal Musara’ah) wherein the prophetic narrations on the permissibility of wrestling are cited. This however is specific to that which does not involve payment from the competing parties. And (Lu’abul Arab by Ahmad Taymur Basha (1348AH), the book that mentioned various Arab sports. It is authored based on the letters of the dictionary alphabets.
From all these, it is understood that Muslims did not neglect physical sports, instead, they practiced it and advanced in it when they regarded it a science and put it within the frame of ethics that governed it
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