Studying the Qur’anic Qira’at (modes of recitation) was a watershed moment in my life, a watershed moment in which my perspectives on life, death, and the afterlife shifted dramatically. It has always bothered me that most Muslims, especially those who are not Arab, don’t know about the Qira’at, which is the Holy Qur’an’s most amazing use of language.
So, to follow and execute the saying of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), “none of you truly believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.” I decided to write a book that explains the science of Qur’anic Qira’at in a way that Non-Arabs students can understand. This book will help people understand and live with Qur’anic Qira’at even if they don’t know Arabic.
By Allah’s grace, Muslims who speak English can now study and understand this great knowledge, which has a lot to do with the Holy Quran, the most important book for Muslims.
Definition of Qira’at
Linguistically, Qira’at is the plural of Qira’ah (a recitation), which is the infinitive of the verb “Qara’a” which means “to read or recite”.
Qira’at technically: Articulation of the words of the Quran as taught or heard from the Prophet, Peace be upon him, by his Companions.
This science is concerned with the words of the Glorious Quran in terms of the manner and method of pronunciation of such words, as well as the implementation of the said method. It belongs to the Noblest Sciences because it protects one from making mistakes when pronouncing the Qur’anic vocabulary, thus protecting it from distortion and alteration, and it also aids in distinguishing between what is read and what is not.
Qira’at and Revelation
The revelation sent down from Allah to the Prophet, The Messenger of Allah, Peace be upon him, is the sole source for the Qira’at . Then he relayed this revelation to his companions (may Allah be pleased with them) in minute detail. He would recite it to his companions as it was revealed to him (Peace be upon him).
Abu Abdur Rahman reported: The companions would learn to recite ten verses from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him. They would not take another ten verses until they understood the knowledge and deeds they contained. They would say, “We learned sacred knowledge and action together”.
Qira’at and Variation
A Qira’ah (variable recitation) is a Sunnah that is followed. It was transmitted from the mouth of Allah’s Messenger, Peace be upon him, through both oral and written narration. It is the Quran in and of itself, not a separate entity from the Quran, and there is no distinction to be made [between one recitation and the other]. A Qira’ah is a collection of different wordings [and or pronunciations] that the Holy Spirit (Jibreel-Archangel Gabriel) was sent down with on various occasions to recite to Allah’s Messenger, Peace be upon him.
Imam Muslim, (may Allah have mercy upon him), narrates from Ubay Ibn Ka’b, (may Allah be pleased with him), who said: “I was in the mosque when a man entered and prayed and recited (the Qur’an) in a style to which I objected. Then another man entered (the mosque) and recited in a style different from that of his companion. When we had finished the prayer, we all went to Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) and said to him: This man recited in a style to which I objected, and the other entered and recited in a style different from that of his companion.
The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) asked them to recite and so they recited, and the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) expressed approval of their affairs (their modes of recitation). and there occurred in my mind a sort of denial which did not occur even during the Days of Ignorance. When the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) saw how I was affected (by a wrong idea), he struck my chest, whereupon I broke into sweating and felt as though I were looking at Allah with fear.
He (the Holy Prophet) said to me: Ubayy. a message was sent to me to recite the Qur’an in one dialect, and I replied: Make (things) easy for my people. It was conveyed to me for the second time that it should be recited in two dialects. I again replied to him: Make affairs easy for my people. It was again conveyed to me for the third time to recite in seven dialects and (I was further told): You have got a seeking for every reply that I sent you, which you should seek from Me. I said: O Allah! forgive my people, forgive my people, and I have deferred the third one for the day on which the entire creation will turn to me, including even Ibrahim (peace be upon him) (for intercession)”.
- Scholars of “Qira’at ” have classified Qur’anic recitations into two categories: acceptable recitations and irregular recitations.
Acceptable recitations: are those that meet three criteria:
- That it agrees with a sound principle derived from Arabic language principles.
2- That it is consistent with the written scripture as compiled by Uthman, may Allah have mercy on him.
3- That it came to us via an authentic chain of transmission.
- Every Qira’ah that meets these three pillars is then considered a Qur’anic recitation, which is permissible to recite both in prayer and separately as an act of worship. This is the vast majority of knowledgeable people’s opinion.
- The irregular recitations are those that lack one or more of the previous pillars.
- There are ten Qira’at (recitations) that have reached us via an authentic successive chain of transmission. They were delivered by a group of reciters known for their precise narration, correct pronunciation, and exceptional proficiency. The narrators of these recitations, as well as their most famous students, are listed below:
- Nafi’ Al-Madani recitation (70-169AH). Imam Qaloon and Warsh are two of the most well-known people who have told stories about him.
- Recitation by Imam Ibn Kathir Al-Makki (45-120AH). Imam Al-Bazzi and Qunbul are two of the most famous of those who narrated to him.
- Imam Abu ‘Amr Al-Basri recitation (70-154 AH). Imam Ad-Dori and As-Sosi are two of the most famous people who narrated from him.
- Imam Ibn ‘Amir Ash-Shami’s recitation (21–118AH). Imam Hisham and Ibn Zakwan are two of the most well-known people who narrated from him.
- The recitation of Imam ‘Asim Al-Kofi’ (death: 127H). Imam Shu’bah and Hafs are two of the most well-known narrators from him.
- Imam Hamzah Al-Kofi recitation (80-156AH). Imam Khalaf and Khallad are two of the most famous people who narrated for him.
- Imam Al-Kisa’i Al-Kofi recitation (119–189AH). Imam Abu Al-Harith and Hafs Ad-Dori are two of the most well-known narrators of his.
- Imam Abu Ja’far Al-Madani’s recitation (35–130AH). Imam ‘Eesa Ibn Wardan and Ibn Jammaz are two of the most well-known narrators of his.
- Imam Ya’qub al-Hadhrami’s recitation (131-205AH). Imam Ruwayis and Rouh are two of the most well-known narrators for him.
- Imam Ibn Hisham Al-Bazzar Al-Baghdadi’s recitation (150–229AH). Imam Is-Haq Ibn Ibrahim and Idrees Ibn ‘Abdul-Kareem are two of the most well-known narrators from him.
- We call a “Riwayah” the narration of a narrator from among those mentioned to the Imam by which he narrates the recitation. Thus, this is the Qira’ah of Imam ‘Asim with the Riwayah of Imam Hafs, or the Qira’ah of Imam Nafi’ with the Riwayah of Imam Warsh, and so on.
- The attribution of the seven recitations to the seven reciters is based on selection and fame rather than opinion and desire; it is accomplished through following transmission and narration. The Qira’at are based on knowledge and narration rather than personal opinion and interpretation.
All of the Qira’at that have come to us through an authentic chain are revelations from Allah The Most High that were revealed to the Prophet (peace be upon him). As a result, scholars warn against learning the Quran through methods other than education, audition, and oral transmission.
Tawatur of the Seven Qira’at
The majority of recitation and usool scholars believe that the seven modes of recitation date back to the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). Some of them disagreed, including Abu Shamah, at-Tawfi, and ash-Shawkani, according to one of his views. However, the majority’s point of view is the correct one, and it must be followed.
Taaj ad-Deen ‘Abd al-Wahhab as-Subki said in his fatwas: The seven modes of recitation to which ash-Shatibi referred, to the exclusion of others, and the three others namely the recitation of Abu Ja’far, the recitation of Ya’qoob, and the recitation of Khalaf are Mutawatir and well-known, and it is a well-known fact in Islam that they were revealed to the Prophet of Allah. Except for the ignorant, no one would vehemently disagree with that. They are regarded as Mutawatir not only by those who are familiar with these ten modes of recitation but also by any Muslim who says, “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,” even if he is rough and uneducated and has not memorised even one letter of the Quran”.
He stated, “We could go into greater detail about the proof and evidence, but we don’t have time to do so here.” What is expected of every Muslim, and what he should do, is to accept before Allah, may He be exalted, and be certain that what we have mentioned is Mutawatir and is known for certain, leaving no room for doubt or uncertainty.
So, according to consensus, the seven modes of recitation are Mutawatir, as are the three others: Abu Ja’far’s, Ya’qoob’s, and Khalaf’s recitations. According to scholarly consensus, the correct, preferred view, which we learned from most of our Shaikhs, is that the recitations of the other four (Ibn Muhaysin, al-Yazeedi, al-Hasan, and al-A’mash) are odd (Shazzah)”.
Imam An-Nawawi (May Allah have mercy on him) said: “Our companions and others said: “It is permissible to recite, in prayer and otherwise, according to any of the seven modes of recitation; but it is not permissible to recite, in prayer or otherwise, according to an odd mode of recitation, because that is not the Quran. Mutawatir reports are the only way to prove the Quran, and each of the seven modes of recitation is Mutawatir.” This is the correct viewpoint, and anyone who says otherwise is wrong or ignorant.”.
Ibn an-Najjar al-Fatohi (May Allah have mercy on him) said: “According to the four Imams and other leading Sunni scholars, the seven modes of recitation are Mutawatir. This was related by as-Sarakhsi, one of ash-Shafa’i’s companions in Kitab as-Sawm in al-Ghayah. He stated: “The modes of recitation are transmitted through Ahad reports.
[An Ahad hadith is one that has insufficient narrators at each stage of the Isnad to be considered. Mutawatir]”.
Az-Zarqani (May Allah have mercy on him) stated that the ten modes of recitation are all Mutawatir, which is supported by evidence. This is the opinion of usool and recitation scholars such as Ibn as-Subki, Ibn al-Jazari, and an-Nuwairi”.
- Some people may think that the Isnads of the recitations mentioned by the imams in their books are well-known and limited, but they are Ahaad Isnads, so how can their recitations be Mutawatir?
This is an old and specious argument, which has been refuted by more than one scholar of recitation and usage. The leading scholars who specialised in this field, on whose teachings these modes of recitation are based, and to whom the Isnads trace their origins, were not the only ones who were proficient in or specialised in these modes of recitation. Rather, these modes of recitation were Mutawatir during their time, and they remained so after their time, because there were other scholars like them who specialised in that field and had students who learned from them. This thesis is concerned with recitation modes and the rules and regulations that govern them.
The Imam Sharaf ad-Deen ad-Dimyaati (May Allah have mercy on him) said: “The fact that the Isnads related to the modes of recitation are limited to one group does not mean that the modes of recitation did not have other Isnads.” Rather, the reports concerning the modes of recitation are attributed to them because they are the ones who became specialised in that matter and recorded the names of their shaykhs from whom they learned it, and each of them [the narrators in the Isnads] in their generation had many others who specialised in that field, raising the reports to the level of Mutawatir. This is the consensus among scholars, and the dissenting view of Ibn al-Haajib, who disagreed with some of what we have mentioned, was refuted by one who was very well versed in this field, namely Ibn al-Jazari, who refuted it at length in his book al-Munjid, which is worth reading”.
Ibn an-Najjar al-Fatohi (May Allah have mercy on him) said: “Some claimed that the reports concerning the modes of recitation were Ahaad reports, such as at-Tawfi in his Sharh, He stated, “The fact is that they (the modes of recitation) are widely known as being attributed to them, but they were not widely narrated from them,” because the Isnads of the seven imams of recitation for the seven modes of recitation going back to the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) are to be found in the books of recitation, which were transmitted from one scholar to another at a time, and thus they do not.
The answer is that just because the Isnads are restricted to a specific group does not mean that the modes of recitation were not transmitted through other narrators. Every city’s inhabitants used to learn recitation based on the recitation of their Imam, whether he was a Sahabah or not, so a large number of people would learn from another large number of people like them, and so on. As a result, the transmission of the recitations was Mutawatir, but the imams who specialised in the modes of recitation recorded the names of their shaykhs from whom they learned their mode of recitation, which is why their Isnads were made available (whilst others did not). This is similar to the Ahaad reports about the Farewell Pilgrimage, but the Farewell Pilgrimage reports continued to be transmitted in the manner of Mutawatir reports, from one large group of people to another, throughout the ages. So one should pay attention to that and not be misled by those who claim that the Isnads of recitation scholars are Ahaad”.
The term “mutawatir” refers to learning something on the basis of certainty when there is no doubt, as opposed to learning something on the basis of probability. The level of certainty regarding the soundness of the seven modes of recitation has been established, and it has been transmitted via Mutawatir reports, which effectively provide certainty. And that is the point, whether or not this terminology was known at the time. This is simply a terminology issue concerning the establishment and development of guidelines in various fields of knowledge. The Arabs (pre-Islam) used to follow grammar rules in their language, giving words case endings based on whether they were nominative, accusative, or genitive, and so on, but if the people of the Jahiliyyah were to resurrect today, none of them would know the terminology of Arabic grammar; in fact, none of them knew anything about grammar as it is now spoken of.
Similarly, in the case of hadith, usool al-fiqh, and other branches of Islamic knowledge, the fact that the specific terminology of any particular field appeared later does not imply that the ideas and concepts to which the terminology refers were unknown to specialists in that field previously.
The fact that the concept was unknown to non-specialists or that it was not widely used by others in general does not negate the fact that the concept existed, nor does it call into question the validity of a specific academic issue.
Imam Shams ad-Deen adh-Dhahabi (May Allah have mercy on him) said: “The fact that something is Mutawatir does not necessarily mean that the entire ummah is aware of it,” he said. There are matters that are Mutawatir among recitation scholars but not among others. There are Mutawatir issues among the fuqaha’ that are narrated by their imams via Mutawatir reports, which the scholars of recitation are unaware of. There are Mutawatir hadiths among hadith scholars that the Fuqaha’ have never heard of, or that for the Fuqaha’ were not Mutawatir; rather, they were at the level of probability only. There are definitive issues for grammarians, and the same is true for linguists”.
According to the ayah, the isti’azah should be read before beginning to recite the Quran. According to the majority of Scholars, reciting the isti’azah is Sunnah.
Although there is disagreement over the wording of the isti’azah, the general consensus and practise is to recite it.
There is also disagreement over whether the isti’azah should be read aloud or silently, so it has been reported that Imam Nafi’ and Imam Hamzah read the isti’azah silently.
However, the Scholars of Qira’at have condemned this viewpoint, despite the fact that a minority, such as Abul ‘Abbas Al-Mahdawi and others, have narrated the isti’azah for Imam Nafi’ and Imam Hamzah to be read silently. The isti’azah has been narrated aloud for the remainder of the Qurra’. This is the widely accepted and practised viewpoint. Regardless of the foregoing, the preferred viewpoint is that the isti’azah be read in accordance with the recitation, i.e., if the Tilawah is silent, the isti’azah should be silent as well; if the Tilawah is audible, the isti’azah should be audible as well.
However, the isti’azah will always be read silently during prayer.
It is necessary to begin the recitation with isti’azah. Similarly, it is necessary to recite basmalah at the beginning of every surah except for Surah at-Tawbah.
However, there is ikhtilaf among the Qurra’ when reading between two Surahs, that is, joining two Surahs without a break.
As a result, Imam Qaloon, Ibn Kathir, ‘Asim, and al-Kisa’i read the basmalah between two surahs as follows:
Imam Hamzah reads wasl, or between two surahs, without basmalah. Some scholars have related saktah to Imam Hamzah in al-Arba’ az-Zuhar, i.e., when reading wasl between any other two Surahs, to make saktah at the end of:
Surah al-Muddathir before beginning Surah al-Qiyamah.
2) Surah al-Infitaar before beginning Surah al-Mutaffifeen.
3) Surah al-Fajr before beginning Surah al-Balad.
4) Surah al-‘Asr before beginning Surah al-Humazah.
When reading between two Surahs, Imam Warsh, Abu ‘Amr Al-Basri, and Ibn ‘Amir use wasl, saktah, or basmalah- three Aujuh (ways).
The hukm of al-Arba’ az-Zuhar or al-Arba’ al-Ghurr:
The four surahs are known as al-Arba’ az-Zuhar or al-Arba’ al-Ghurr: Surah al-Qiyamah, Surah al-Mutaffifeen, Surah al-Balad, and Surah al-Humazah.
Some Scholars of Qira’at have narrated basmalah for them in al-Arba’ az-Zuhar, i.e., when reading with saktah between two other Surahs, read basmalah at the beginning of the four surahs; or when reading with wasl between two other surahs, read basmalah at the beginning of the four surahs.
The basmalah between two surahs is read by Imam Abu Ja’far.
Imam Khalaf reads wasl, that is, between two surahs without basmalah. Some Scholars have related saktah for Imam Khalaf in al-Arba’ az-Zuhar as well.
Imam Ya’qob reads between two Surahs with wasl, saktah, or basmalah-three aujuh (ways). Some Scholars of Qira’at have narrated basmalah for them in al-Arba’ az-Zuhar, i.e. to read basmalah at the beginning of the four Surahs when reading with saktah between two other Surahs, or to read basmalah when reading with wasl between two other Surahs.
Idgham kabeer is the process of converting the first mutaharrik letter into the second mutaharrik letter after making it a Sakin. The first letter is called mudgham, and the second letter is called mudgham feeh. If there is a letter of madd or leen before the mudgham, any of the three aujuh (ways) of madd is permissible, namely. (Tool, Tawassut, Qesar).
e.g. (حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا) – (الرحيم ، ملك) etc.
It should be noted that Idgham kabeer is the mazhab of Imam Abu ‘Amr Al-Basri. However, according to the tareeq of Imam Shatibi, it is only read for Imam Sosi .
This Idgham occurs in mithlain, mutajanisain, and mutaqaribain, provided the riwayah is established (thabit).
Assimilation of identicals (Idgham al-Mutamāthilān) Whether in one or two words
- Only twice in the Quran does Idgham kabeer replace (ك) into (ك) in the same mithlain word, i.e., when two of the same letters are in the same word.
The is first is (مَنَاسِكَكَمْ) in surah al-Baqarah and the second is (مَا سَلَكَكُمْ) in surah al-Muddathir.
B) Idgham kabeer will take place also, if mithlain appears in two words, when there is a mutaharrik or Sakin letter preceding the mudgham, e.g. .(فِيهْ هُدَى ، أَعْلَمْ مَا)
One exception exists i.e (فَلَا يَحْزُنكَ كُفْرُهُ)in surah Luqman.
There are four prerequisites for this Idgham to occur in Mithlain:
1) The mudgham should not be mushaddad e.g. (فَتَمَّ مِيقَاتُ)
2) The mudgham should not be munawwan e.g. (وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ)
3) The mudgham should not be ta’ of khitab e.g. (أَفَأَنتَ تُكْرِهُ)
4) The mudgham should not be ta’ of mutakallim
e.g. (كُنْتُ تُرَابًا).
However, if there is mithlain due to hazf, two aujuh (ways) will be read at the following locations: (يَخْلُ لَكُمْ ، وَإِنْ يَكُ كَاذِبًا ، وَمِنْ يَبْتَغِ غَيْر)
However, in (وَيَا قَوْمِ مَا لِي) and (وَيَا قَوْمِ مَن يَنصُرُنِي) There will only be Idgham because the (ي) in this instance is of idhafah.
In the same way, in (آلَ لُوطٍ) as inلَكَ كَيْدًا) (Only Idgham will be used.
Similarly, Idgham of the (و) of that (هو), the (ه) of which is madhmoom, e.g هُوَ وَالَّذِينَ) ، (هُوَ ۚ وَأُوتِينَا in: (يَأْتِيَ يَوْمٌ ، نُودِيَ يَا مُوسَى), Only Idgham will be used.
If the (هـ) of (هو) is Sakin or besides (هـ) Another Sakin letter comes before the (و), Then there will be Idgham. e.g.
(من اللهو ومن التجارة ، فهو وليهم) etc.
However, in (وَٱلَّٰٓـِٔى يَئِسْنَ) in surah al-Talaaq only Izhar will be present.
Idgham is not permitted because the sukoon of the (ي) is ‘aridh (temporary) and so is the (ي) itself.
This is so because in )ٱلَّٰٓـِٔى (, initially the ي is dropped, it becomes )لاء(, thereafter the Hamzah is changed to a (ي) maksurah and this (ي) sakinah, thus becoming )ٱلَّٰٓـِٔى (. As a result, because the (ي) and sukoon are both ‘aaridh,’ Idgham will not take place.
Assimilation of sounds with close places of articulation (Idgham al-Mutaqaribain)
- In one word, the Idgham of mutaqaribain will take the place only of the (ق) into the (ك) of (كم) for Imam Sosi when;
1) There is a mutaharrik letter before the (ق), and
2) The (كم) is a two-letter word, e.g., (يخلقكم، خلقكم) etc.
As a result, there will be no Idgham in words like: (خلقك– نرزقك)
If after the (ك)there is a (ن) of jam’ thaneeth as in (إن طلقكن) is in surah al-Tahreem, there will be Idgham by khulf.
- In two words, the Idgham of mutaqaribain will take place of the following 16 letters:
(ح ق ك ج ش ض س د ت ذ ث ر ل ن م ب)
into the mudgham feeh i.e. the letter after.
There are four prerequisites for this Idgham to occur:
1) The mudgham should not be munawwan e.g. (ولا نصيرٍ لقد)
2) The mudgham should not be mushadded e.g. (الحقُّ كمن)
3) The mudgham should not be ta’ of khitab e.g. (خلقتَ طينا)
4) The mudgham should not be majzum or mu’tal al-lam, for example: .(ولم يؤت سعة)
Idgham with khulf (variance)
Idgham may occur on the first (ب) in (لذهب بسمعهم) in Surah al-Baqarah.
Idgham may occur on the first (ب) in (الكتاب بأيديهم)in Surah al-Baqarah.
Idgham may occur on the first (ب) in (الكتاب بالحق)in Surah al-Baqarah.
Idgham may occur on the first (ل) in ، (جعل لكم) This occurs eight times in surah al-Nahl.
Idgham may occur on the first (ل) in (قبل لهم)in surah al-Naml.
Idgham may occur on the first (ه)ـ in ، (وأنه هو) This occurs four times in surah al-Najm.
The following are the locations where Imam Rawh makes Idgham:
Idgham will take place upon the (ذ) letter of (أخذت)and its forms wherever they occur. (Idgham Sagheer)
Idgham will be held on the first (ب) in (والصاحب بالجنب)in Surah an-Nisa’.
Idgham will be held on the first (ن) letter in (أتمدونن) in surah al-Naml when continuing.
Idgham will be held on the first (ت) in (ربك تتمارى)in surah an-Najm when continuing.
Idgham will be held on the first (ن) in (يس والقرءان)and(ن والقلم) .
The (هـ) dhameer of only one muzakkar ghaib is referred to as (هـ) kinayah, e.g. ( به، عنه، له)etc.
The discussion in (هـ) kinayah is in regards to:
1} Silah. 2}Non silah. 3} Sukoon and harakah of the (هـ).
a) Silah means to add a madd letter after the (هـ) kinayah i.e. to add a (ي) sakinah after a kasrah, and a (و) sakinah after a dhammah.
b) Non silah means, not to add a letter of mad after the (هـ) kinayah.
Note: If after (هـ) kinayah If there is a sakin, there will be no silah, e.g. (منه النهار، جاءه الرسول) etc.
When before and after the (هـ) kinayah there is a mutaharrik letter Then all the Qurra’ will have silah, e.g. (فله أجره عند) etc.
and if before the (هـ) kinayah there is a sakin letter and after it a mutaharrik letter, Then, only Ibn Kathir, of the seven Qurra’, makes silah, e.g. (فيه هدى).
However, in (فيه مهانا) which is in surah al-Furqan, Imam Hafs joins him in making silah. In (أَرْجِهْ وَأَخَاهُ) together with Imam al-Makki, There will also be silah for Imam Hisham.
Al-Madd and Al-Qasr
Madd is to extend the letters mad or leen for the length specified by the various Qurra’.
- Madd is of two types;
A. Madd Asliis that madd in which there is no reason for mad to occur, i.e. there is no hamzah or sukoon, for example.(نوحيها). It is not permitted to extend the length beyond its original length, i.e. one) (أ.
B. Madd Far’ee is that madd after which there is a reason for mad to occur, i.e. there will be either a hamzah or sukoon, e.g. (جاء، ولا الضالين).
Types of madd Far’ee:
1. Madd Muttasil is the madd in which the Hamzah is muttasil following harf madd, for example(جآء) etc.
- There are three options for all Qurra’.
a} Imam Warsh and Imam Hamzah (Ishba’ 6 harakat).
b} Imam ‘Asim (4,5,6 harakat).
c} Imam Qaloon, Ibn Katheer and Abu ‘amr, Ibn ‘amir and al- Kasa’i (4,6 harakat).
- It should be noted that qasr is not permitted for any Qari’ (Imam) in madd muttasil.
2. Madd Munfasil is that madd in which the Hamzah is munfasil after harf madd, for example(بما أنزل) etc.
- All Qurra’ have four options:
a} For Imam Warsh and Imam Hamzah, (Ishba’ 6 harakat) only.
b} For Imam Qaloon and Imam ad-Dori, there is qasr and the second option is tawassut. (2 or 4 harakat).
c} For Imam Ibn Kathir, there is qasr only (2 harakat).
d} For Imam Ibn ‘Amir, ‘Asim, and al-Kisa’i there is tawassut only (4 harakat).
3. Madd Lazim is that madd in which the sukoon is lazim after harf madd, e.g. (دابة).
- Madd lazim is classified into four types:
madd lazim kalimi mukhaffaf (light indispensable lengthening in the word), madd lazim kalimi muthaqqal (heavy indispensable lengthening in the word), madd lazim harfi mukhaffaf(light indispensable lengthening in the letter), and madd lazim harfi muthaqqal (heavy indispensable lengthening in the letter) (heavy indispensable lengthening in the letter). (6 harakat for the entire Qurra’).
4. Madd ‘Aridh lissukon is that mad in which the sukon is ‘aridh after harf mad, for example (نستعين) . (2,4,6 harakat for all Qurra’).
6. Madd Leen ‘Aridh lissukon is the madd in which the sukoon is ‘aridh after the harf leen, e.g.(والصيف)
(2,4,6 harakat for all Qurra’).
7. Madd Leen Muttasil is the madd in which the letter hamzah is transformed into muttasil after the huroof leen, e.g..(شيئ)
Only Imam Warsh will have tawassut and ishba’ (2,4 harakat). The remaining Qurra’ makes Qasr (2) harakat.
8. Madd Badal is the madd in which the letter hamzah appears before the letter madd in the same word,e.g. (إيمانكم – أوتوا)
-There will be qasr for all the Qurra’ (2 harakat), except Imam Warsh. He reads with qasr, tawassut, and Ishba’ (2,4,6 harakat).
The hukm of two letters of hamzah in one word
It should be noted that there are three types when two letters of hamzah come together in one word:
- Both of the two letters of hamzah are maftooh. e.g. (ءأنذرتهم)
2. The first is maftooh and the second is maksoor. e.g. (أئنا)
3. The first is maftooh and the second is madhmom.
- In the first type, both of the two letters of hamzah are maftooh. For Imam Ibn Kathir, Nafi’, and al-Basri, there will be tas-heel without khulf for the second hamzah and tas-heel with khulf for Imam Hisham. There will also be an idkhal of alif for Imam Qaloon, al-Basri, and Hisham between the two Hamzah. There will be tas-heel mahdh for Imam Warsh and al-Makki, and there will be a second way for Imam Warsh, which is ibdal bil alif of the second hamzah. The rest of the Qurra’ is read with tahqeeq of both hamzah letters, as Imam Hafs does.
- As a result, the first type will have the following five Qira’at :
1. Tas-heel with idkhal for Imam Qaloon and al-Basri.
2. Tas-heel mahdh for Imam Warsh and al-Makki.
3. The second way for Imam Warsh is ibdal bil alif.
4. Tas-heel with idkhal and tahqeeq with idkhal for Imam Hisham.
5. Tahqeeq of hamzatain for the remaining Qurra’.
- In the second type, i.e. the first hamzah is maftooh and the second maksoor, for example (أئنا) For Imam Ibn Kathir, Nafi’, and al- Basri, there will be tas-heel without khulf of the second hamzah. Imam Hisham creates tas-heel by khulf in only one location, namely (أئنكم لتكفرون)in surah as-Sajdah. in addition to that, there will be no tas-heel in hamzah maksurah for him. There will also be idkhal of alif for Imam Qaloon and al-Basri, except for the word (أئمة) in which there will be tas-heel mahdh.
Tas-heel mahdh will be served to Imam Warsh and al-Makki. There will be idkhal by khulf for Imam Hisham, except in seven places where there will be idkhal without khulf.
The remaining Qurra’ will read the two letters of hamzah with tahqeeq similar to Imam Hafs.
- In the third type, the first is maftooh and the second is madhmoom, for example (أؤنبئكم)
Imam Ibn Kathir, Nafi’, and al-Basri will receive tas-heel without khulf of the second hamzah. There will be tas-heel by khulf for imam Hisham in (ءأنزل) in surah Sad and (ءألقي) in surah al-Qamar, but only tahqeeq in (قل أؤنبئكم) in surah Ali ‘Imran. There will be idkhaal without khulf for imam Qaloon and idkhal by khulf for imam al-Basri and imam Hisham. Imam Hisham will have only idkhaal, along with tas-heel.
Similar to imam Hafs, the remaining Qurra’ will read tahqeeq without idkhaal.
When the hamzah sakinah is fa’ kalimah in either name or verb, Imam Warsh makes ibdal of the hamzah to harf ‘illah, corresponding to the harakah on the letter before the hamzah. As a result, there will be ibdal of the hamzah to an (أ) prior to a fathah, for example: (يأخذ، يأكل) and replace to a (و) before a dhammah, e.g. (المؤمنون) and replace to (ي) before a kasrah, e.g. (السَّمَاوَاتِ ۖ ائْتُونِي)
Transferring the harakah of hamzah to the letter before it
If a sahih sakin letter or a letter of leen appears before a hamzah qat’, Imam Warsh makes naql, i.e. the harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the letter before it, and the hamzah is dropped. This naql occurs when the sahih sakin letter is at the end of the first word and the hamzah qat’ is at the start of the next word.
It should be noted that this naql takes place in both mawsool. (الإنسان) and mafsool(من آمن) .
Sukoot Imam Hamzah on the sakin letter before the letter of hamzah
Abul Fath Faris claims that in both Mawsool, for example:(الأرض) , or Mafsool, e.g. (قد أفلح) and the words (شيء) and (شيئًا) , there will be saktah for Imam Khalaf when reading wasl, and for Imam Khallad there will be no saktah.
According to Tahir ibn Ghalboon and others, saktah will be available only in mawsool and (شيء) and (شيئًا) for both Imam Khalaf and Khallad, and in mafsool there will be no saktah for both Imam Khalaf and Khallad.
Waqf Imam Hamzah and Hisham on the letter of hamzah
Waqf requires takhfeef (light), and hamzah is a thaqeel (heavy) letter. As a result, when making waqf, Imam Hamzah and Hisham make takhfeef in the hamzah.
According to the tareeq of Imam Shatibi, Imam Hamzah makes takhfeef on two types of hamzah: mutawassitah and mutatarrifah.
Only the hamzah mutatarrifah is takhfeef by Imam Hisham.
As a result, Imam Hisham and Hamzah agree on hamzah mutatarrifah’s takhfeef. As a result, the hamzah mutatarrifah rules will not be discussed separately for Imam Hisham.
• There are three kinds of hamzah mutawassitah:
1} Mutawassitah tawassut haqeeqi, e.g. (يؤمنون) etc.
2} Mutawassitah tawassut hukmi occurs when the hamzah becomes mutawassitah as a result of a dhameer or mansoob munawwan, e.g. (نسآءكم) etc.
3} Mutawassitah bi-zzawa’id occurs when the hamzah mubtadi’ah is mutawassitah due to a letter or word preceding it, for example (من آمن)etc.
- hamzah mutatarrifah is hamzah found at the end of a word, for example, (جاء)etc.
- According to the harakah and sukoon, the hamzah mutawassitah and hamzah mutatarrifah are classified into three types:
1} hamzah sakin preceded by a mutaharrik letter.
2} hamzah mutaharrik preceded by a sakin letter.
3} hamzah mutaharrik preceded by a mutaharrik letter.
Izhar and Idgham
The rule of the (ذ) of (إذ)
Amongst the Qurra’ some read the (ذ) of (إذ)with izhar and others with Idgham .
-This occurs 47 times in the Quran before the next six letters, namely ت) ، د ، ج ، ز ، س (ص،
(إذ صرفنا ، إذ سمعتموه ، إذ زين ، إذ دخلوا ، إذ جعلنا ، إذ تبرأ)
- There will be Izhar of the (ذ) of (إذ) before all 6 letters for Imam Nafi’, Ibn Kathir and ‘Asim.
- Before (ج), there will be izhar of the (ذ) for Imam Khallad and al-Kisa’i, and in the remaining 5 letters there will be Idgham for them.
- For Imam Khalaf there will be Idgham of the (ذ) into (ت) and (د), Izhar will appear before the last four letters.
- For Imam Ibn Zakwan there will be Idgham in only (د), Izhar will appear in the last five letters.
- For Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri and Hisham there will be Idgham of the (ذ) into all six letters.
The rule of the (د) of (قد)
Regarding the (د) of (قد) too, Some Qurra’ read it with izhar, while others with Idgham.
-This occurs 98 times in the Quran before the following eight letters, namely (جيم ، ذال ، زاء ، سين ، شين ، صاد ، ضاد ، ظاء)
-Examples: (قد شغفها ، لقد سمع ، و لقد ذرأنا ، لقد جاءكم)
- There will be Izhar of the (د) of (قد) before all 8 letters for Imam Qaloon, Ibn Kathir and ‘Asim.
- For Imam Warsh there will be Idgham of the (د) into (ض) and (ظ) (two letters), and before the remaining 6 letters there will be Izhar.
- Ø For Imam Hisham there will be izhar of the (د) before the letter (ظ) at only one place i.e. (لقد ظلمك) in surah Sad, besides this one place, there will be Idgham of the (د), into the remaining 8 letters.
- Ø For Imam Ibn Zakwan there will be Idgham of the (د) into 4 letters viz. ) ز ، ذ ، ض ، ظ ( . however in (ولقد زينا) There is khulf, but izhar is preferred. And before the final four letters, namely ج) س، ، ش ، (ص there will be izhar of the (د).
- Ø There will be Idgham of the (د) into all of the above 8 letters for Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri, Hamzah and al-Kisa’i.
The rule of the (ت) of ta’neeth
Regarding the (ت) of ta’neeth, some Qurra’ are read with Izhar, while others are written in Idgham. This occurs 26 times in the Quran before the next six letters, viz. ث) ، ج ، ز ، س ، ص ، ظ).
-Examples: (كانت ظالمة ، خبت زدناهم ، وجبت جنوبها ، كذبت ثمود) etc.
- There will be izhar of the (ت) of ta’neeth before all 6 letters for Imam Qaloon, Ibn Kathir and ‘Asim.
- For Imam Warsh, there will be Idgham of the (ت) of ta’neeth into only (ظ), and izhar will come before the remaining 5 letters.
- For Imam Ibn ‘Amir there will be izhar before 3 letters viz. ج) ، ز س، (, and there will be Idgham of the (ت) into 3 letters (ص ، ث ، ظ). However, regarding the (ص) which is found in surah an-Nisa’, i.e. (حصرت صدورهم) there will be Idgham for both Imam Hisham and Ibn Zakwan, and in (لهدمت صوامع) in Surah al-Hajj, there will be izhar for Imam Hisham and Idgham for Imam Ibn Zakwan, and in (وجبت جنوبها) There will be izhar only for Imam Ibn Zakwan and Hisham in surah al-Hajj.
- There will be Idgham of the (ت) into all six letters for Imam Abu ‘Amr, Hamzah and al-Kisa’i.
The rules of the (ل) of (هل) and (بل)
The izhar and Idgham of the (ل) of (هل) and (بل) Before the eight letters, the Qurra’ differs as well. This occurs in 34 places in the Quran. The letters are as follows:
ت) ، ث، ز ، س ، ض ، ط، ظ ،ن)
بل سولت ، بل تأتيهم ، بل زين ، هل ندلكم ، هل ثوب ، هل تعلم) ( etc.
- For Imam Nafi’, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Zakwan and ‘Asim there will be izhar of both (هل) and (بل) before all eight letters.
- For Imam al-Kisa’i there will be Idgham of both the (ل) in all eight letters.
- For Imam Hamzah there will be Idgham of the (ل) into 3 letters viz. (ت ث، ، س) and before the remaining five letters there will be izhar. However, for Imam Khallad in (بل طبع الله) which is in surah an-Nisa’, there will be Idgham by khulf.
- For Imam Hisham there will be izhar before (ن) and (ض), and specifically the (ت) in (هل تستوي) which is in surah ar-Ra’d, there will be izhar. In the remaining letters there will be Idgham.
- For Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri in (هل ترى من فطور) which is found in Surah al-Mulk and (فهل ترى) in surah al-Haqqah, there will be Idgham, and before the remaining letters, there will be izhar.
Idgham, which was agreed upon by all the Qurra’
The Qurra’ agree on the Idgham for the following letters.
a) The Idgham of the(ذ) of (إذ) into itself and into the letter .(ظ) e.g. (إذْ ظلموا ، إذْ ذَّهب).
b) The Idgham of the (د) of (قرد) into itself and into the letter (ت). e.g. (قد تبين، قد دخلوا).
c) The Idgham of the (ت) of ta’neeth into itself and into the
(د) letters and ,(ط) e.g. (قالت طائفة ، فما ربحت تجارتهم) .
d) The Idgham of the (ل) of (هل) and (بل) into itself and into the letter (ر). e.g. (فهل لنا ، بل ربكم)
Idgham, in which the Qurra’ differ
- Abu ‘Amr Al-Basri, Khallad and Al-Kisa’i makes Idgham of (ب) majzoom into (ف) in the following five places i.e.
- (يَغْلِبْ فَسَوْفَ) in surah an-Nisaa
- (تَعْجَبْ فَعَجَبٌ) in surah ar-Ra’d.
- (اذْهَبْ فَمَنْ) in surah al-Isra’.
- (فَٱذْهَبْ فَإِنَّ) in surah Taha.
- (يَتُبْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ) in surah al-Hujurat.
In all 5 places the (ب) will be changed to a (ف), and then the Idgham of the first (ف) will take place into the second (ف). Idgham by Khulf will come in last place for Imam Khallad. The remaining Qurra’ was read with izhar.
- Imam Abul Harith makes Idgham of (ل) majzoom into (ذ) at 6 places in the Quran, e.g. (ومن يفعل ذلك) etc.
The remaining Qurra’ read with izhar.
- Imam Al-Kisa’i makes Idgham of (ف) majzoom into (ي) at only one place in the Quran, i.e. (إِن نَّشَأْ نَخْسِفْ) in surah Saba’.
The remaining Qurra’ read with izhar.
- Imam Abu ‘Amr Al-Basri, Hamzah and Al-Kisa’i make Idgham of the (ذ) into (ت) at three times in the Quran, namely, (عُذْتُ بِرَبِّى) at two times in surah Ghafir and surah ad-Dukhan, and one time (فنبَذْتُّها) in surah Taha. The remaining Qurra’ read with izhar.
- Imam Hisham, Abu ‘Amr al-Basri, Hamzah and al-Kisa’i make Idgham of the (ث) into (ت) at two places, i.e. (أورثتموها) in surah al-A’raf and surah az-Zukhruf. The remaining Qurra’ read with izhar.
- Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri makes Idgham of (ر) majzoom into (ل) at 53 places in the Quran e.g. (يغفر لكم)
Imam Ad-Dori, on the other hand, will have khulf, i.e. izhar and Idgham. The remaining Qurra’ read with Izhar.
- Imam Qaloon, Ibn Kathir, Abu ‘Amr al-Basri, Hafs and Hamzah read (يس والقرآن) and (ن والقلم) with izhar and the remaining Qurra’ i.e. Imam Warsh, Ibn ‘Amir, Shu’bah and al-Kisa’i read with Idgham at both places, but for Imam Warsh in (ن والقلم) there is khulf, i.e. Idgham and izhar.
- Nafi’, Ibn Kathir and ‘Asim read with izhar at
(كهيعص ذكر) in surah Maryam i.e. the (د) of the (ص) will be read with izhar before the (ذ) of (ذكر).
- Imam Nafi’, Ibn Kathir and ‘Asim read (ومن يرد ثواب) with izhar, i.e. the (د) of (يرد) before the (ث) of (ثواب).
The remaining Qurra’, namely Imam Abu ‘Amr Al-Basri, Ibn ‘Amir, Hamzah and al-Kisa’i, were read in Idgham.
- Nafi’, Ibn Kathir, ‘Asim read (لبثت، لبثتم) which appears in 13 places with izhar, i.e. the (ث) before the (ت) is read with izhar. The remaining Qurra’, namely Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri, Ibn ‘Amir, Hamzah, and Al-Kisa’i, were read in Idgham.
- Hamzah reads (طسم) with izhar, i.e. the (ن) of (س) before the first (م) of (ميم).
-Hence, according to Imam Hamzah, this will be Madd lazim harfi mukhaffaf. The rest of the Qurra’ is read in Idgham and Ghunnah.
- Imam Ibn Kathir, and Imam Hafs read (اتخذتم ، أخذتم ، اتخذت) with izhar. The remaining Qurra’ read with Idgham.
- Imam Qaloon, Bazzi, and Khallad read ) (يا بني اركب معنا with Izhar by khulf. Imam Warsh, Ibn ‘Amir and Khalaf read with izhar but not with khulf.
The rest of the Qurra’, Imam al-Basri, Qunbul, ‘Asim and al-Kisa’i, were read in Idgham .
- Imam Ibn Kathir, Warsh and Hisham read (يلهث ذلك) with izhar, There will also be izhar by Khulf for Imam Qaloon. The rest of the Qurra’ was read in Idgham .
- Imam Warsh and Ibn Kathir readمن يشاء) (يعذب with Izhar.
Imam Qaloon, Abu ‘Amr, Hamzah and Al-Kisa’i read with Idgham.
-There will be izhar only for Imam Ibn ‘Amir and ‘Asim, because they read the (ب) in (يعذب) with raf’.
The hukm of (ن) sakin and Tanween
Noon sakin and tanween have four rules,
a) izhar b) Idgham c) iqlalb d) ikhfa’.
- If any of the huroof halqi appear after (ن) sakin and Tanween, there will be izhar.
- If after (ن) sakin and tanween, any of the letters of (يرملون) appear, Idgham will be performed if the mudgham and mudgham feeh are written separately, hence in
(دنيا ، صنوان ، بنيان ، قنوان) there will be no Idgham .
- Idgham is of two types:
a) Idgham with ghunnah. b) Idgham without ghunnah.
-In the letters of (ينمو) there will be Idgham with ghunnah.
But for Imam Khalaf there will be Idgham without ghunnah in the (ي) and (و) specifically.
-In (ل) and (ر), there will be Idgham without ghunnah for all the Qurra’.
- If after (ن) sakin and tanween there appears a (ي), the (ن) sakin and tanween will be changed to a (م) and read with ikhfa’. This rule is known as iqlab. Izhar is not permissible.
- Besides the huroof halqiyyah and (يرملون) and (ب), if any other letter appears, ‘ikhfa’ will take place.
Fath, Imalah, and Taqleel
The (أ) preceded by a fathah will be pronounced with the mouth open, which is known as a fath, and imalah means to lean the fathah towards the kasrah and the alif towards the (ي).
Imalah is of two types:
1. Imalah kubra occurs when the fathah moves closer to the kasrah, and the (أ) leans closer towards the (ي).
Imalah kubra is also known as ‘idtijaa’, imalah mahdhah, imalah kathirah, and imalah qawiyyah.
2. Imalah sughra occurs when the fathah does not lean in closer to the kasrah, nor does the (أ) lean closer towards the (ي). (i.e. it will be pronounced between fath and imalah kubra).
-Imalah sughra is also known as taqleel, bain bain, imalah qaleelah, imalah dha’eefah, and bainal lafzain.
-When the word imalah is used in a general sense, it refers to imalah kubra.
-In order for imalah to occur, there must also be thuboot of naql and thuboot of riwayah.
The reasons for imalah are as follows:
1. The kasrah should come before or after the letter in which imalah is made, e.g. (كلا، النار، الناس) etc.
2. Kasrah can be found under certain conditions, e.g. (طاب) as in (طبتم), (شاء) as in (شئتم) etc.
3. The (أ) which has been transformed from a (ي).
e.g. رمى ، يغشى) ، (يخشى etc.
4. That (أ) which is similar to the (أ) which has been transformed from a (ي), e.g. the alifs of ta’neeth (نصارى ، أسارى) etc.
5. That (أ) which is similar to the above alif and is mulhaq.
e.g. (يحيى ، عيسى ، موسى) etc.
6. That imalah made as a result of the imalah of another letter, i.e. the letter is either before or after the letter in which imalah is made, e.g. in (تَرَاءَى), the imalah of the first (أ) is because of the imalah of the second (أ); this imalah is read only for Imam Hamzah. And in the (ن) of (نئا) and the (ر) of (رَأَىٰ), imalah is made because of the imalah of the (أ).
As a result, this is known as imalah for imalah.
7. The (أ) which is written in the form of a (ي).
etc. (شديد القوى ، ضحى)
- The mumeel (Imam who makes imalah) are divided into two groups:
a) Imam Qaloon, Ibn ‘Aamir and ‘Asim) make imalah sparingly.
b) Those whose common rule is to make either imalah or taqleel or both, namely Imam Warsh, Abu ‘Amr, Hamzah, Al-Kisa’i.
-Imam Ibn Kathir claims that imalah is not mentioned in any surah of the Quran.
The rules of imalah for Imam Hamzah and al-Kisa’i
- Rule 1: In the alifaat mutatarrifah of zawatul (ي), there will be Imalah for Imam Hamzah and al-Kisa’i, whether the zawatul (ي) be an fi’l (verb), or ism (name).
e.g. (الزنى ، الهوى ، الهدى) etc.
- Rule 2: There will be imalah for Imam Hamzah and al-Kisa’i in alifaat of ta’neeth as well.
e.g. (حوايا ، فرادى ، يتامى، طوبى ، تقوى) etc.
The words (موسى ، يحيى ، عيسى) are also included.
- Rule 3: There will be imalah for Hamzah and Al-Kisa’i on those alifaat mutatarrifah that are written in the form of a (ي), whether it is a ya’ee or wawee word, or an ism or fi’l.
e.gمتى) (يا حسرتى، يا ويلتى ، عسى ، بلى ،.
However, five words are exempt from this rule, namely
، على، ما زكى) (إلى، لدى، حتى no imalah will be granted for any of the Qurra’.
- Rule 4: Even if the word is wawi, there will be imalah in the alifat mutatarrifah for Hamzah and al-Kisa’i in those words that are more than three letters, because when the word is more than three letters, it becomes zawatul (ي), e.g.
يرضى ، يتزكرى) (نجينا ، استعلى، etc.
The imalah of Imam Ya’qoob
- In the first word(أَعْمَى) of
(وَمَن كَانَ فِي هَٰذِهِ أَعْمَىٰ فَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ أَعْمَىٰ وَأَضَلُّ سَبِيلًا)
In surah al-Isra’ there is Imalah for Imam Ya’qoob.
- In the words (كفرين) and (الكفرين), there is imalah for Imam Ruwais. In the word (كفرين) in surah an-Naml, i.e.
(مِن قَوْمٍ كَافِرِينَ), there is imalah for Imam Rawh also.
- In the (ي) of (يس), there is imalah for Imam Rawh.
The rules of imalah for Imam Khalaf al-‘Ashir
- Rule 1: In the alifat mutatarrifah of zawatul ي, there will be imalah for Imam Khalaf, whether the zawatul (ي) be an ism or fi’l, e.g.
(اشترى ، اجتبى ، الزنى ، الهوى ، الهدى) etc.
- Rule 2: In alifat of ta’neeth too there will be imalah for Imam Khalaf. e.g. (حوايا ، فرادى ، يتامى ، سيما ، طوبى ، تقوى) etc.
The words (موسى ، يحيى ، عيسى) are also included.
- Rule 3: There will be imalah for Khalaf in those alifat mutatarrifah that are written in the form of a (ي), whether it is a ya’ee or wawee word, or an ism or fi’l.. (بلى، متى، عسى)
- However, five words are exempt from this rule.
viz. إلى ، لدى ، حتى) ، (على ، ما زكى, no imalah will be issued for any of the Qurra’.
- Imam Khalaf makes imalah in the (أ) of the following three words: (ران ، شاء ، جاء)
- Rule 4: That (ر) mutatarrifah which has a kasrah, before which there is an alif prceded by a (ر), i.e. the (أ) is between two (ر), Imam Khalaf makes imalah, e.g. (الأشرار، القرار ، الأبرار).
The rules of imalah and taqleel for Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri
- Rule 1. There will be imalah for Abu ‘Amr al-Al-Basri in the alifat mutatarrifah of zawatur (ر), on any scale, and whether it is an ism or a fi’l,
for example. (اشترى ، نصارى ، بشرى)
- Rule 2. In that zawaatul (ي) , there will be only taqleel for Abu ‘Amr al-Basri, which is on the scale of .(فُعلى)
e.g. (موسى ، طوبى)
Or on the scale of (فَعلى) e.g. (تقوى ، موتى)
Or on the scale of (فِعلى) e.g. (عيسى ، ضيزى)
- Rule 3. In the alifat mutatarrifah of zawatul (ي)In these words, which are found at the end of the verses of the eleventh Surah, Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri makes only taqleel.
The rules of fath and taqleel for Imam Warsh
- Rule 1. In zawatur (ر)there will be taqleel without khulf for Imam Warsh, i.e. one wajh (way) only.
e.g. (بشرى ، نصارى ، ذكرى ، سكارى) etc. except the word
أَرَىٰكَهُمْ) (وَلَوْ in surah al-Anfal, in it there will be taqleel by khulf for Imam Warsh.
- Rule 2. In zawatul (ي)There will be taqleel by Khulf for Imam Warsh, though fath is first.
e.g. (الهدى ، الهوى ، ماويكم ، مثويكم ، طوبى ، اجتبى ، دنيا ، موسى)
-There is only one place in the Quran in which Imam Warsh makes imalah i.e. the (هـ) in the the word (طه).
Imalah because of Kasrah
- Rule 1. Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri, al-Kisa’i, and al-Kisa’i make imalah, and Imam Warsh makes taqleel, from that (ر) mutatarrifah which has a kasrah, before which there is an .(أ)
آثرارهم ، ابصارهم ، البوار ، القهار ، النار) (بدينار ، الحمار، حمارك ، بقنطار، etc.
and in two words i.e. (الحمار، حمارك) there is imalah by khulf for Imam Ibn Zakwan as well.
- Rule 2. However, if before the above mentioned (أ)there is another (ر), i.e. the (أ) is between two (ر), there will be imalah for Imam al-Basri and al-Kisa’i, and taqleel for Imam Warsh and Hamzah, for exampl (الأشرار، القرار ، الأبرار)
Likewise, Imam Hamzah uses taqleel in the following two words:(البوار ، القهار)
- Rule 3. In the words (كفرين) and (الكفرين), there is imalah for Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri and Imam ad-Dori, and taqleel for Imam Warsh.
-In the word (مجرىها) in surah Hud, there is an imalah for Imam Hafs too.
The positions that Imam al-Kisa’i singled out from others regarding the rule of Imalah
In the following words, the imalah will be specific to Imam al-Kisa’i, i.e., Imam Hamzah does not make imalah in these words.
- (أحيا) which has no (و) before it, e.g. (أحياكم ، من أحياها)
- The word (خطايا) in every form, e.g. .(خطايانا، خطاياهم، خطاياكم)
- In the same way, there will be imalah for Imam al-Kisa’i in the words:
(رؤياى ، مرضات ، الرؤيا ، مرضاتى، حق تقاته ، وقد هدان، ومن عصاني ، فما آتاني الله ، محياهم ، تلاها، طحاها) .
The positions that Imam ad-Dori singled out from others regarding the rule of Imalah
There are certain words in which Imam ad-Dori makes imalah. They are as follows:
(بارئكم ، البارئ ، رؤياك ، محياي ، مثواي ، هداي ، طغيانهم ، آذاننا ،آذانهم ، مشكاة ، الجوار أنصاري ، جبارين ، الجبار، نسارع ، سارعوا ، فأواري ، يواري)
In the last two, i.e. (يُوَارِي ، فَأُوَارِيَ) there is khulf (from Tayyibah) but fath is read (only from Shatibiyyah).
The positions that Imam Hamzah singled out from others regarding the rule of Imalah
Imam Hamzah makes imalah in the (أ) of the following ten words: ضاق ، حاق ، خاف ، طاب ، خاف ، زاد ، شاء ، جاء) ، ران ، (زاغ
but not in (زاغت)
-In (بَلْ ۜ رَانَ) there is imalah for Imam Shu’bah and Imam al-Kisa’i, together with Imam Hamzah. In the same way in the words (جاء) and (شاء), there is imalah for Imam Ibn Zakwan together with Imam Hamzah.
The positions that Imam Hisham singled out from others regarding the rule of Imalah
There will be imalah for Imam Hisham only, in the following four words, which are: (مشارب) in surah Yaseen, (آنية) in surah al-Ghashiyah, (عابدون ، عابد) in surah al-Kafiroon.
The positions that Imam Ibn Zakwan singled out from others regarding the rule of Imalah
Imam Ibn Zakwan makes imalah by khulf in the following words:
(عِمْرَانَ) in surah ‘Ali-‘Imran and surah At-Tahrim.
(الْمِحْرَابِ) in surah ‘Ali-‘Imran –surah Maryam and surah Sad.
(إِكْرَاهِهِنَّ) in surah an-Noor.
(وَٱلْإِكْرَامِ) in surah ar-Rahman.
Mazhab Imam al-Kisa’i In the ha’ at-Ta’neeth when making waqf
When making waqf, there are two versions for al-Kisa’i.
1) The first version states that if any of the following fifteen letters appear before the ha’ at-Ta’neeth, imalah will be read.
(ف ج ث ت ز ي ن ب ل ذ و د ش م س)
e.g. (ليلة، حبة، جنة، خشية، ميتة، ثلثة، بهجة، خليفة)
2) The second version holds that imalah will occur if any letter other than an أ appears before the ta’ at-Ta’neeth. That is, if there is a before the ta’ at-Ta’neeth, imalah will not occur.
Examples of the ta’ at-Ta’neeth preceded by an) (أ: (ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ، الزَّكَاةَ) etc.
Cases of the letter (ر)
When the (ر)is maftooh or madhmoom and there is a kasrah muttasilah lazimah before it, or if there is a (ي)sakinah muttasilah before the (ر) , or if there is a sakin letter between the kasrah muttasilah and the (ر) , the (ر)will be read with tarqeeq for Imam Warsh.
Examples of the (ر) preceded by a kasrah muttasilah:
etc. (فَالْمُدَبِّرَاتِ ، فَاقِرَةٌ)
Examples of the (ر) preceded by a (ي) sakinah muttasilah:
etc. (الخبير، فَالْمُغِيرَاتِ ، ٱلْخَيْرَٰتِ)
-However, in the word (حيران) there will be tarqeeq by khulf for Imam Warsh.
Examples of the Sakin letter between the kasrah and the (ر):
etc. (سِدْرَةِ ، الذكر ، المحراب ، الشعر)
Hence, if before the (ر) the kasrah is not muttasilah lazimah, the (ر) will then not be read as muraqqaqah.
(بِرُءُوسِكُمْ ، لرسول ، برسول ، بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم)
Similarly, if before the (ر) the (ي) sakinah is not muttasilah, then too the (ر) will then not be read as muraqqaqah.
(مُقْنِعِي رُءُوسِهِمْ ، فِي رَيْبٍ)
Similarly, if the sakin letter is not between a kasrah and the (ر), then too the (ر) will then not be read as muraqqaqah, e.g. (يسرا) etc.
A few rules in which all the Qurra’ are unanimous regarding the letter (ر)
- Rule 1. When the ra’ sakinah appears after a kasrah lazimah muttasilah, it is interpreted as muraqqaqah, for example. (فرعون)
- Rule 2. When the (ر) appears after a kasrah ‘aridhah, the (ر) will be read mufakhamah, e.g. (ارْكَب مَّعَنَا) etc.
- Rule 3. When the (ر) appears after a kasrah munfasilah, the (ر) will be read mufakhamah, e.g. (أَمِ ٱرْتَابُوٓاْ)
- Rule 4. When before the (ر) there is a kasrah and after the (ر) there is any letter from the letters of Isti’la’, the (ر) will always be read mufakhamah, whether the (ر) be mutaharrikah or sakinah,
e.g. (صراط ، فراق ، قِرْطَاسٍ ، وَإِرْصَادًا) etc.
- Rule 5. When before the (ر), which is at the end of the word we stand on, there is a kasrah or (ي) sakinah, or there is a sakin letter preceded by a kasrah, or an (أ) in which imalah or taqleel occurs, then in all of the above conditions when making waqf with sokoon or waqf with ishmaam, the ra’ unanimously be muraqqaqah, e.g. (مقتدر، خير).
The hukm of the letter (ل) in terms of Tafkheem and Tarqeeq
- Imam Warsh reads the (ل) with tafkheem when it has a fathah, and any one of three letters appears before it, namely. ص) ( ط ،ظ، provided that these three letters also have a fathah or are sakin, whether the three letters are mukhaffaf or mushaddad, and whether the (ل) itself is mukhaffafah or mushaddadah, mutawassitah or mutatarrifah, (الصلاة ، ظلموا ، مطلع)
- Taqleel is a type of imalah, and since imalah and tafkheem are diametrically opposed, taqleel and tafkheem cannot be read together.
- The Fath should be read with tafkheem and taqleel with tarqeeq by the Qari. It is not permissible to read in any other way.
- If a fathah or dhammah appears between the two letters (ل) of ,(الله) both letters will be read with tafkheem throughout the Qurra’. And if there is a kasrah between the two letters (ل), both letters will be read with tarqeeq.
- If there is imalah before the two letters (ل)of ,(الله) as is in the Qira’ah of Imam as-Sosi, then two ways will be read, i.e., tafkheem and tarqeeq, e.g.,، نَرَى اللَّهَ) (فَسَيَرَى ٱللَّهُ. (A total of three ways will be read for Imam as-Sosi).
Waqf on the last letter
Waqf means to pause for a moment, take a deep breath, and then resume recitation.
There are three types of waqf:
a) Iskan b) Ishmam c) Rawm
Iskan is unique when it comes to making waqf because rest is intended in waqf and sukoon is the most convenient place to rest. Second, because sukoon is the easiest of the harkaat, it is preferred for waqf.
Although waqf by ishmam and waqf by rawm are contrary to the original method of making waqf, many Qurra’ have accepted and preferred them because the reader and listener will know the harakat of the last letter on which waqf has been made through waqf by ishmam and waqf by rawm.
Thus, among the Qurra’, Imam Abu ‘Amr Al-Basri and Kofiyyeen narrate the above two types.
Although the remaining Qurra’ have not sanctioned these two types, waqf by ishmam and waqf by rawm, they have been preferred by the scholars of Qira’at .
- Waqf with iskan is to make waqf on the last letter of a harakah, making it a sakin in such a way that no part (section) of the harakah is read at all. This waqf is legal in all three harakat.
- Waqf with ishmam is to make waqf on the last letter, forming a sakin, and then indicating with the lips towards the dhammah and raf’. This waqf is only possible on a letter that is madhmoom or marfoo’.
- Waqf with rawm is waqf on the last letter, reading only one-third (⅓) of the harakah so softly that only those nearby can hear it. This waqf is permissible on the letters madhmoom or marfoo’, maksoor or majroor.
- Ishmam and rawm are not permissible on a harakah ‘aridhah, a harakah from which naql has been made, or a meem of jam’ or ha’ ta’neeth.
Waqf according to the rasmul khatt of the Quran
When making waqf, the ‘Uthmani rasmul khatt must be followed.
Imam Nafi’, Imam Abu ‘Amr al-Basri, and Kofiyyeen have all narrated and sanctioned it. Although it is not sanctioned by the remaining Qurra’, the scholars of Qira’at have preferred it for them as well. It is a well-known and widely accepted fact that making waqf according to the rasmul khatt of the Quran is required. Rasmul Khatt’s status and significance are determined by this.
As a result, the four fiqh Imams agree that adhering to the rasmul khatt is essential.
However, because some Qurra’ make waqf that is contrary to the rasmul khatt, it is necessary to mention and outline those words so that the reader does not make waqf for them that is contrary to their Qira’at.
The following are the words on which the Qurra’ has made waqf contrary to the rasm:
The ha’ ta’neeth, which is written with a long ta’ (ت): e.g.
(بقيت ، قرت ، فطرت ، لعنت ، معصيت ، سنت ، امرأت ، رحمت ، نعمت ، جنت، كلمت ، شجرت)
In all of the above words, Imam Ibn Kathir, Abu ‘Amr al-Basri and al-Kisa’i make waqf with (هـ). The remaining Qurra’ make waqf with (ت) according to rasm.
Doctrines of scholars regarding (ي) idhafah
(ي) idhafah is the (ي) that is superfluous to the structure of the word and indicates the speaker.
This is found in name, verb or letter, e.g. (سبيلي ، لِيَبْلُوَنِي ، أَنِّي) etc.
The ikhtilaaf among the Qurra’ in the (ي) idhafah, is in regard to reading the (ي) with a fathah or sukoon. This, according to the count of Imam al-Shatibi, is two hundred and twelve, which is divided into six categories as follows:
1) That (ي) idhafah after which there is a hamzah qat’ maftohah e.g., (إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ) of which there are ninety nine in the Quran.
2) That (ي) idhafah after which there is a hamzah qat’ maksurah e.g., (يَدِيَ إِلَيْكَ) etc. of which there are fifty two in the Quran.
3) That (ي) idhafah after which there is a hamzah qat’ madhmomah e.g., (إِنِّي أُرِيدُ) etc. of which there are ten in the Quran.
4) That (ي) idhafah after which there is a hamzah wasl with lam ta’reef e.g., (رَبِّيَ الَّذِي)of which there are fourteen in the Quran.
5) That (ي) idhafah after which there is a hamzah wasl without lam ta’reef e.g., (إِنِّي اصْطَفَيْتُكَ), etc. of which there are seven in the Quran.
6) That (ي) idhafah after which there is any other of the hurof tahajji e.g., (بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ) etc. of which there are thirty in the Quran.
Doctrines of scholars regarding (ي) za’idah
(ي) za’idah is that (ي) in which there is ikhtilaf among the Qurra’ in regards to hazf and ithbat.
(ي) za’idah is of two types:
a) (ي) asliyyah will always be lam kalimah, in both name and verb, .(المناد ، الداع)
b) (ي) za’idah will always be found after lam kalimah, e.g. (عباد، دعاء
The disagreement in the (ي) za’idah according to the count of Imam al-Shatibi is sixty-two. There are four types of this.
1) Ithbat of the (ي) in the two cases i.e. during waqf and when reading wasl.
2) Hazf of the (ي) in the two cases.
3) Ithbat in wasl and hazf in waqf.
4) Hazf in wasl and ithbat in waqf.
In both cases, it is Imam Ibn Kathir without dispute and Imam Hisham with khulf who read with itthbat from among the seven Qurra’.
For Imam Nafi’, Hamzah, al-Basri, and Al-Kisa’i, there will be ithbat in wasl only, except for Imam Hamzah in the word.
(أَتُمِدُّونَنِ بِمَالٍ) There will be ithbat in both cases, and the remaining Qurra’ will be read with hazf in both cases.
Takbir at the end of Surah
The scholars disagreed on whether or not to say Takbir after each surah from al-Duha to al-Naas. Imam Ahmad considered it mustahab, but the other imams disagreed. There is another report from Imam Ahmad that supports the majority’s position. The correct view is that saying Takbir is not prescribed, and this is not supported by any marfoo’ hadith from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). There is also no Sahih report about this Takbir from any of the Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them), but it was proven by some of Makkah’s Qurra’ (reciters).
It was related that ‘Ikrimah ibn Sulaiman said: I recited to Isma’eel ibn ‘Abd-Allah ibn Constantine, and when I reached Wa’l-duha (i.e., Surah al-Duha), he said to me: Say Takbir, say Takbir at the end of every Surah until you finish (the Quran). ‘Abd-Allah ibn Kathir told him that he recited to Mujahid and he told him to do that, and Mujahid told him that Ibn ‘Abbas had told him to do that, and Ibn ‘Abbas told him that Ubayy ibn Ka’b told him to do that, and Mujahid told him that Ibn ‘Abbas told him that Ubayy ibn Ka’b told him to do that, and Ubayy ibn Ka’b told him that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told him to do that.
This hadith is a da’eef hadith (weak). Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abd-Allah ibn Abi Bazzah al-Muqri’ is among its isnad. His hadith is da’eef (weak), and I will not narrate from him, according to Abu Haatim. His hadith is munkar, according to Al-‘Aqeeli (odd). Al-Dhahabi stated, “This is a ghareeb (strange) hadith, and it is one of al-munkar Bazzi’s hadith . This is Munkar, according to Abu Hatim. And he added, Al-Hakim considered his hadith about Takbir to be Sahih, but it is munkar.
Ibn Muflih al-Hanbali (May Allah have mercy on him) stated that it is mustahabb to say Takbir from the beginning of Surah al-Duha until the end of the Quran. This was mentioned by Ibn Tameem and others, and this is the recitation of the Makkans, which al-Bazzi took from Ibn Kathir, and Ibn Kathir took it from Mujahid, and Mujahid took it from Ibn ‘Abbas, and Ibn ‘Abbas took it from Ubayy ibn Ka’b, and Ubayy ibn Ka’b took it from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). A number of them related this, including Imam al-Baghawi in his Tafsir, and the reason for this is that the Wahy (revelation) ceased.
This is a ghareeb hadith reported by Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abd-Allah al-Bazzi, who is da’eef (weak) in hadith but strong in recitation.
It is a munkar hadith, according to Ibn Haatim al-Raazi.
It was also told to him – i.e., Imam Ahmad – that there should be no Takbir, as all reciters believe..
Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (May Allah have mercy on him) was asked about a group of people who gathered to read the entire Quran (khatmah) and were reading to ‘Asim and Abu ‘Amr. They did not say Laa ilaaha ill-Allah or Allahu akbar until they reached Surah al-Duha at the end of the Quran. Is what they did superior? Is the hadith about saying tahleel and Takbir Sahih and Mutawatir true or false?
Yes, if they recite in accordance with a recitation other than that of Ibn Kathir, they are better off not doing so, which is what is prescribed by Sunnah. These recitation imams did not say Takbir at the beginning or end of the surahs. If it is permissible to say that Ibn Kathir narrated the Takbir from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), then it is permissible for others to say that these people narrated the omission from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as well. It is not possible that the majority’s recitation, which was narrated by more people than Ibn Kathir’s recitation, omitted something forbidden by the Prophet of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), because those who narrated Mutawatir reports could not have concealed something for which there was a good reason to narrate it. The one who accepts that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told the majority of reciters to add an extra Takbir, then disobeyed his command and failed to do what he had commanded them to do, deserves to be severely punished as a deterrent to him and others like him.
Regarding the Takbir, according to scholarly consensus, anyone who claims that it is part of the Quran has gone astray and should be asked to repent; if he repents, fine; otherwise, he should be executed. How can someone who does not recite it be condemned for doing so? The one who regards a person who does not say this Takbir as an innovator, one who goes against the Sunnah, or a sinner, is closer to Kufr than Islam and should be punished; indeed, if he insists on this after having the evidence explained to him, he should be executed.
If we assume that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) instructed some of those who recited it to say Takbir, then it is permissible or mustahabb. If it were mandatory, the majority of reciters would have done it, and Muslim imams would not have agreed that it is not. However, none of the imams stated that the Takbir is obligatory; rather, anyone who reads according to Ibn Kathir’s recitation can say that it is mustahabb. This is in contrast to the Basmalah, whose recitation is mandatory according to those who consider it to be part of the Quran, but the reciters allow not reciting it if one does not want to use it as a break between one Surah and another. So how could it not be permissible to omit the Takbir, which is not found in the Quran?”.
And he (May Allah have mercy on him) said: The Takbir that is narrated by Ibn Kathir is not narrated with an isnad from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and no one attributed it to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) except al-Bazzi, who thus went against all those who narrated it, as they only narrated it as something optional that was done by some (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). His transmission was regarded as weak by hadith and biography specialists among scholars of recitation and hadith, as mentioned by more than one scholar”.
Shaikh Muhammad ibn Salih al-‘Uthaymeen (May Allah have mercy on him) was asked: Some Quran reciters separate Surahs by saying Allahu akbar instead of the basmalah. Is that legal, and is there any evidence to support it?
This contradicts what the Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them) did when they separated one Surah from another by saying Bismillaah il-Rahmaan il-Raheem, as well as the scholarly view that the Surahs of the Quran should not be separated by Takbir throughout the Quran.
Some reciters consider it mustahabb for a person to say Takbir after finishing each Surah from al-Duha to the end of the Quran, as well as the Basmalah between every two Surahs. However, the correct interpretation is that this is not Sunnah because it was not narrated by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Based on this, it is prescribed to separate one Surah from another by saying the Basmalah, Bismillaah il-Rahmaan il-Raheem, with the exception of Surah Baraa’ah (al-Tawbah), where there is no Basmalah between al-Anfaal and it.”.
Shaikh Bakr Abu Zayd (may Allah preserve him) stated that there are “seven things that have to do with reading the entire Quran, of which we may mention: Saying Takbir from the end of Surah al-Duha to the end of Surah al-Naas, both when praying and not.
Then he said:
There are no Sahih reports from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) or his companions on these seven points (may Allah be pleased with them). The majority of what is said about some of them cannot be considered evidence. According to the correct interpretation, none of these things are prescribed in sharee’ah.”.
Shaikh Ibrahim al-Akhdar, the Shaikh of the Reciters in al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, has written an essay titled Takbir al-Khatam bayna al-Qurra’’ wa’l-Muhadditheen, in which he says at the end: “From the above discussion of the reports, examination of their Isnads, and biographies of their narrators, we could find nothing but the report of al-Bazzi – as the scholars said – and it is a report whose Isnad is filled with weak and majrooh narrators, and there is no other report apart from the report of al-Bazzi.” Many scholars of reports stated this unequivocally, even though some of the most famous reciters, such as Ibn Mujahid in his book al-Sab’ah, did not narrate the Takbir, nor did Abu’l-Qasim al-Hudhali in his book al-Kamil. This indicates that the report was not proven in their opinion. And Allah knows best.”
A Sunnah cannot be established through such a report; it is better not to do that, whether it is mentioned in the report of al-Bazzi or the report of anyone else. That is done to protect Allah’s Book and keep out anything that is not part of it, whether it is considered Sunnah or not. All praise to Allah, the Creator of the World. End quote.
Many reasons have been given for this takbir, the most well-known of which is that the Revelation to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was interrupted for a while, and when it resumed, the first thing that was revealed was Surah al-Duha, which says: ” Your Lord O Prophet has not abandoned you, nor has He become hateful towards you.” [al-Duha 93:3]. Even if this is Sahih, it does not imply that saying Takbir is mustahabb, as some recitation scholars suggest, for several reasons:
1. It does not state that Takbir must be said after each recitation of the Surah.
2. It does not state that Takbir should be recited until Surah al-Naas.
3. The Takbir was only said once because the Revelation resumed after a brief hiatus.
4. The other surahs do not contain the same information as Surah al-Duha.
Furthermore, there is no Sahih Isnad or even a da’eef (weak) one in this report.
Imam Ibn Kathir (May Allah have mercy on him) said:
With regard to saying Takbir after Surah al-Duha, the reciters said that when the revelation was late in coming to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and that went on for a while, then the angel came to him and brought the words: “By the morning sunlight, and the night when it falls still!” [al-Duha 93:1-2], he said Takbir out of joy and happiness.
This, however, was not mentioned in any isnad that could be considered sahih or da’eef. And Allah knows best”.
And Allah is the most knowledgeable.
By Dr. Mohamed Abdelmonem Elsayed Khalil