and welcome you once again to Islam infocus. Today we have our 48 in our series, Jesus loved the Messenger of Allah
and we have a 15 hour segment atonement, sin and birth sacrifice. Today inshallah we’ll continue our discussion on crucifixion in the New Testament. I’m your host, Rashad munition here once again from St. Mary’s University is Dr. Delgado as our
you’ve really touched upon a very interesting topic, maybe you can update our viewers on last week’s program. Okay. Last week, we started dealing with the study of crucifixion in the New Testament, rather than the Old Testament as we discussed it in previous sessions.
And the main focus was that a lot of biblical scholars did raise many questions both about the authenticity and consistency of the story of crucifixion, as it appears in before canonized Gospels.
On the question of authenticity, it was indicated that two of the authors of the four gospels, at least that is Mark and Luke, were not disciples of Jesus, or eyewitnesses to what happened. So we’re really talking about secondhand information.
And as far as the other two, Matthew and john, they are also suspected not to be of the disciples of Jesus, especially john.
As far as the consistency.
We said that many of the biblical scholars have pointed out that the very same event or the same segment of the event, in the story of crucifixion, which are found in the four gospels are many times put, with so many variations. It’s not clear contradiction, and matter, which really casts doubt about the whole story and its historicity, unlike the common notion that this is an established historical fact that there is no question about
in order to
investigate this kind of proposition to see whether there is sufficient evidence or not. We began to analyze the issues and the stories pertaining to the events of crucifixion. And we covered only one particular question of several, the question of the anointing of Jesus, prior to the Last Supper, and with the help of the chart, we have shown that there are at least eight
different variations not only variations between one gospel or the other, but variation even within the same Gospels.
That is with the same.
pajama, how about the last supper? Yeah, that’s a topic that’s quite familiar. To many of our viewers, is there any question of consistency between the Gospels? Yes, there is in the fact that we go back again to our chart, and this are covered in in five categories from boxes, boxes, nine through 13.
Perhaps with the help of the box, you can discuss some of the points and then I’ll comment on each other quickly. First of all,
when did the Last Supper take place? All right. Now, according to Mark,
it took place on the Passover day. That’s chapter 14, verse 12. Matthew also get the same version. So the blue
okay. However, according to john, The Last Supper took place
before the Passover days.
Okay. Let me just add a comment here, at this point, haven’t compared the different versions of the story. According to a very well known biblical scholar, Dennis nine ham in his book on St. Mark.
He says that there seemed to be some problem with the, with the story, especially insofar as sending two of the disciples of Jesus to the city to prepare for the for the suffered. But we’ll come back to this and the industry heading.
But to clarify the the variation that you find in the Gospel of john, which is different from the other three synoptic gospels.
In chapter 13, verses one and two, it says before the feast of Passover.
Now, this raises a very serious question. It’s not just a matter of formality, really. Because, depending on which version we accept, will determine when Jesus was crucified.
If according to john, the past over, The Last Supper took place before the Passover, that is Wednesday, Wednesday night, it means that Jesus was crucified on Thursday, not on Friday. If you take the other three gospels, then he was crucified on Friday.
Going back to the next box number 10.
The question of preparation for the, for the Last Supper,
according to Mark, it says that Jesus sent to students this is what the reference I made earlier, Jesus sent two of his disciples to prepare
for the for the Last Supper.
According to Matthew, He sent the disciples
and it seemed to indicate all of them because it says when the disciples asked him, he did not say he said, some of them or two of them, he says go, so they went and prepared the Last Supper.
according to Luke, it was Peter and john. But again, to be fair, maybe Luke and Mark might be consistent because Mark simply say to people sent are two disciples which could have possibly been Peter and john, one has to be fair on that. But obviously, the version given by Matthew is, is quite different. JOHN makes no mention of, of that story in the in the preparation of the of the soccer. Okay. Now, moving on to box 11
describes the arrival of Jesus, peace be upon him for the Last Supper.
Now, interestingly enough, the gospels are silent on that. And only the Gospel according to Mark says that Jesus came with the 12. So just mark that
Mark. Mark is the only one who mentioned becoming of Jesus with the 12, especially coming with a specific number of disciples, the others, for example, say that he sat at the table with them.
Now, this raises a very interesting question.
According to Dennis mine, ham.
He says that, besides the fact that the story of description or the the ways the Passover, is described, seems to be quite different from the way a contemporary issue at the time Jesus would have described it. But it is, more importantly, the writers, whoever wrote verse 17, of chapter 14, and Mark, seemed
not to have been aware of what was mentioned, in 1416 of the same chapters. You see, because in 1413, it says that Jesus sent two of his disciples to the city or to the town, which means that there were only 10 left out of the 12 How come he came with this one, because two already was there, beforehand. See, in box 12,
there is another variations with respect to how Judas was identified. As you know, in more than one gospels, it says that Jesus did prophesied during the Last Supper, that someone is going to betray him. So let us move now to box 12. The next one.
According to Mark,
the identification was through Jesus peace be upon him saying that the one who is dipping with me, or dipping the morsel of bread with me is the one who is going to betray me when they asked him for some sign.
Okay, so that’s in a present tense. According to Matthew, it is a different story. It says that Jesus is the one who did with me, past tense.
You cannot say consign Of course, past
presence in the center. according to Luke,
it says that Jesus did not talk about anyone dipping, but simply someone who is with me, that is at the table.
According to john, it is a totally different story that Jesus said the one who is getting this more set are going to be given this morsel is the one who’s going to betray me. And it says he gets a morsel of bread, and then he gave it to Judas. So again, you get four different stories of the very same event
in the following box 13.
The question is raised as to the system, entering Judas, when did that happen? Again, if we move to box number 13,
you’ll notice that mark, and Matthew
did not mention anything about that. But Luke and john are quite conflicting in their version. according to Luke, Satan entered Judas, default suffer, okay?
Because it says, for example, in chapter 22, verse three that the Satan entered into him and he conspired against Jesus. And then verse seven, it talks about the coming of the Passover, which shows that Satan enters into Judas, before the supper, The Last Supper to place according to john, however, in chapter 13, verse 27, it says that the Satan entered Judas, after Jesus gave him the,
Well, you seem to have
quite, quite significant discrepancies there in between between the different Gospels and
I give credit, actually to biblical scholars, Christian biblical scholars who analyze these stories. It’s simply applying simply to compile them to make the point that this story is not as historical as most people really think of it.
Well, there is no turn to the dramatic event as described in the Gospels. And by that I’m referring to the arrest of Jesus. Now, how similar are the Gospels when it comes to this issue? Okay, let me first make a brief comment, maybe by referring to box 14. And then I had some more discussion on that. But I would say that basically, in Mark and Matthew, the story is reasonably similar. There might be slight variation, but basically, it’s similar. It’s does not seem to be contradictory.
Luke, however, seem to give a picture which is much,
you know, much more dramatic as to how Jesus peace be upon him was very, very troubled, and that he was sweating and his sweat like drops of blood and so on. JOHN, however, has something brothers, curious. That is between the period of betrayal when Judas went and he came back with the soldiers to arrest Jesus.
It personally says that Jesus gave a very, very, very long sermon, which occupies the remaining parts of chapter 13, the entire chapter 14 1316, and 17. And the gospel of john, like some scholars say, almost 20%, of the content of the gospel is
included only in the period between Judas leaving and coming back with the soldiers. And that raises really a number of points, let me you know, having indicated this comparison, or at least come to some
remarks. Now, essentially speaking, in Mark and Matthew, it says that Jesus asked his disciples to sit and to pray.
He asked them not to sleep.
And he went, and he prayed by himself, asked me, the father or God to take this cup away from him, that he came back and found them sleeping. So he again tried to urge them not to sleep, but they slept again a third time even then he said, All right, you rest, whatever will happen will happen.
According to look, however, there is something which is not mentioned in the other gospels. It says that an angel appeared to strengthen Jesus. Now what was Jesus really worried about?
Was he afraid to die?
That’s very doubtful, because after all, he predicted according to the gospel, that this will happen to him. The gospels indicate that he gave himself up for the sins of humanity or God sent him
So he knew of that. And being a holy man also in honor prophets definitely would expect him to demonstrate courage more than the courage of some good people even who die without fear of death.
So according to some scholars, like Kurt, CEI RG,
he says that apparently Jesus was more worried about the prominence of the forces of darkness, that is, if they really cause any
commotion or difficulty to his followers. This is this is a very dangerous thing. One from my standpoint, as a Muslim, I would say that if the story was worse, to be true, or worse, to be accepted, that Jesus was very troubled, I would say he must have been very troubled, because many people after him, will think that he was crucified even though he will going is going to be saved. And that will result in doctrinal or dogmas,
doctrine, ideas or dogmas, which does not really teach which will take his teaching in a certain different direction.
The other interesting remark about this very long sermon, reported by john
just this very short series, which is rather curious, taking place on within a span of a couple of hours or a few minutes, probably,
we find that john emphasizes in that sermon,
the statements which some interpret as claims, as claims of divinity, by Jesus, peace be upon him, whoever has seen me, he has seen the Father, I am in the Father, the Father is in Me and on that.
And he seems to de emphasize john and particularly de emphasize the suffering of Jesus, except in chapter 16, verse 21, when he just passing the and very quickly mentioned that Jesus was troubled in spirit.
One would wonder how did the disciples of Jesus sit down to listen to this very long sermon, almost four or more chapters, according to john,
even though the other gospels described them as very, very sleepy people, and Jesus has to keep coming back and forth and find them to be sleeping again.
The this is, you know, one particular question. If we go to box 16,
we find that there are other difficulties also with the question of unrest of Jesus, how was he arrested?
Now, according if we go back to
that, according to Mark, Matthew and Luke,
that Jesus was kissed by Judas Iscariot, and then he was seized, I just put the chapter numbers becomes a little cumbersome to go through all the details. Now,
the john, the gospel, according to john, it gives us a totally different picture. It says that the soldiers came, and Judas was standing with them. And when they asked about Jesus, he said, I am he, you know, they feel they want that, and it doesn’t talk at all about Judas, kissing him.
But even then, when you take the first three gospels, which talk about Jesus being kissed, and seal, the wording is not even identical. In Mark chapter 14, it says that Judas simply says, masters and testament,
in Matthew chapter 26.
It simply says that he said, Hey, masters,
and when you got close to Jesus, he told him, are you going to betray your master, you know, with a kiss, which, you know, may not necessarily indicate
that look, for example, in chapter 22, whether he actually kissed them or just try to catch him.
Now, another question that could be raised at this point.
Is it possible
the patrons went back and sell simply because something interesting and dramatic took place? Why should they fall down? or fall back? Is it possible that because they saw the angel coming into Jesus or Kareem away I’m not saying this as a fact, but it is a very reasonable assumption because why should they go back home
in books 16 the following one,
it is with how Jesus responded
attempt to address him, especially
when it deals with the story of
the sword that someone drew his sword and tried to defend Jesus and cut off the IRS, or one year of the servants of the high priest.
There are so much variations that this is a really just list all of them as is simply said that the story is quite varied. And I’m just giving one example of what Jesus said in one particular incidents when the swords was used
or let’s type according to our orders, coverage. And Mark, for example, in chapter 14,
there is no response. It doesn’t say anything about Jesus responding to the use of the sword.
According to Matthew chapter 26, he said something to the effect that all who take the sword will perish by the sword.
according to Luke chapter 22, they simply say no more of this.
According to john, Chapter 18, especially verses 10 to 11.
It says something different say that Jesus said, Put your sword back. And he said, shall I not drink the cup, which the Father has given me, which is consistent with John’s notion, of course, of Jesus dying for the sins of humanity?
In box 17, the next one
word to that is when Jesus was arrested. Where was he taken to?
Now, in the first three synoptic gospels, Mark, Matthew and Luke, he was taken to the house of ciphers. Who was the high priest.
According to john, he was taking to the house of another fellow
hundreds who was actually the father in law of the high priest, say office.
And I think by looking into these
one cannot help but conclude that they’re definitely far from giving a consistent picture, raising question about their aesthetic even.
That is a very good idea of the discrepancy of the actual arrest itself.
Maybe I’ll take it one step further and ask you what happened after the arrest of Jesus. Okay. In other words, the the trial, that’s basically what happened to the child, okay.
I have some seminars, that’s also in the forum sheet and books a teen.
if we can just move to box 18, please. So if we move on to box, a team, there is some summary of that also,
the time of the trial, according to both
mark and Matthew, it took place at night. And that seems to be also the same. In the Gospel According to john. Luke, however, is different. And he seemed to indicate that the trial took place during the day.
He says, for example, that in the morning, the elders met an ask of Jesus. So obviously speaking about the trial before the high priests and elders during the day.
Okay. Let me add a couple of comments on this one before moving to the next box. 19. According to Dennis Nottingham, he says that the historical value of that particular section, especially in Mark, that’s chapter 14, verses 53, through 65, he said the historical value of that section is rather doubtful. And he gave four reasons for that. First of all, he said the Sanhedrin represents the soup, the supreme authority for Israel, that’s the council of elders
and it has 71 members. And this kind of body would not mean that you know, easily, they have the detailed formal procedure that they have to follow for any such kind of trial in the nationa. For example, there are details on that, and he said that this does not seem to show in the Gospel according to Mark the compliance with all of this format procedures is not mentioned. The second reason is that he says that even if we assume it to be reasonable,
which is not reasonable By the way, if we even assume that all the formal procedures for holding the Sanhedrin has taken place, it is not very likely for such
A body composed of 71 members to meet
in such a very sensitive time, like the Passover night, either the night before the Passover or the same night of the Passover, depending on which version of the Bible or the Gospels you take.
The third reason is that he says that, if, according to the gospel, the elders of Israel, were trying to seek a false witness against Jesus, then you need more time, not just immediately, as soon as you address Jesus, because you want to tell the witnesses what to say. You want to make sure that their witness would be synchronized as to frame demand. And you know, to put him really in trouble, why that pushing with that speed.
The fourth reason again, according to him, is that he says, according to the book of Leviticus, the law in chapter 24, verses 15 and 16, the kind of accusations directed against Jesus peace be upon him,
like destroying the temple and rebuilding in three days and so on, actually deserve
killing by stoning by the congregation, according to the Jewish law. And nine, ham raises this question, why didn’t they, the Jews apply the penalty themselves according to their own laws. Going back now to the to another issue, that’s in box 19. On our chart,
there are some interesting issues pertaining to the behavior of Peters. in the, in the night of arrest of Jesus.
For example, according to Mark,
it says that Peter was seen first by a minute, and then by two by standards. Okay, Chapter 14, verses 66 through 71. According to Matthew, He was seen by two maids. And then by one by standard, according to Luke, he was seen by one myth, and then by two men, against two men could be two by standards. So Luke, and Matt and Mark may possibly be very close in that, but that’s quite different from Matthew, it is quite different from john also, who say that he was seen first by a maid who was at the gates, you know, like doorkeeper, and then by the staff and then by servant
in in the next box number 20.
The following one,
where was Peters asked.
According to Mark, he was asked at one time in the courtyard and twice in the gateway. According to Matthew, He was questioned one time in the courtyard. And then on the porch. Luke is quite similar to john, however, he says that he was questioned one time in the gateway and twice in the courtyard. And this is by no means are the only problems that relate to the Depression of the trial.
Would you explain how I mean, that these are not the only problems related to trial?
By that I mean, that, aside from the factual discrepancy in the way the story is presented, what
Mark mentioned in chapter 15, about the masses demanding the freedom of barabas instead of Jesus,
and the fact that the pilot himself Roman governor was quite convinced that Jesus was innocent. There is a number of questions. First of all, how could a governor who is very convinced that Jesus has done not even and does not deserve any punishment agreed to his execution simply to satisfy the masses? Okay.
In fact, he mentioned or set to Jesus according to john 1910.
Do you know that I have power to release you and power to crucify you? Why didn’t he use this power?
A second issue is that the idea of freeing prisoners in the cutover Day is a custom that many science many scholars said that it’s very strange, there is no confirmation of that. And this is not consistent with the attitudes of the Roman rulers were really cruel and very strong, have a strong hand in ruling their subjects.
Furthermore, Barabbas, according to the Gospels, was accused of insurrection which is threatens a set against the state How could he easily free him even though he was conspiring against the state? A second issue is dimension and Matthew ID in chapter 27, about pilot washing his hands
as a symbol of saying that I’m innocent of the blood of Jesus and many scholars said that this is
is a, a Jewish custom, not a Roman custom according to the tournament, and finally, only Luke mentioned the trial of Jesus also, in addition before Harold, and that’s why many writers like George, suspect that the problem was not enough time to have two trials during this very short time. Well thank you very much for elaboration on the speeches and especially for for that chart which clarifies everything. I thank you all for joining us once again here in Assam focus. As always, your questions and your comments will be appreciated. Our phone number and address will be appearing on your screen.