And ever since the merciful
universe facing blessings upon the servants of Mr. mahama forever, I mean, I greet you with a good thing that is common in Islam. Assalamu Aleikum, it means please Bianchi on your house time of wishing to go we have a nice program in our series dealing with the economic system of Islam in our discussion of the topic of production and productivity with an examination of Muslim contributions to the fields of medicine and geography. I’m your host, Tamar Rashid and I have joining me on the program is Dr. Jamal Bradley over the Secretary’s University over tomorrow Assalamu alaikum alaikum, Salaam Alaikum.
Could I have a very quickly highlight, summarize the main points that he touched on in his program
last week, certainly.
His program focused mainly on Muslim contribution to the fields of mathematics and physics, and mathematics, we spoke about the introduction of the Arabic numerals, and the concept of zero which led to a revolution in mathematics. And we examine some particular fields such as algebra, which was initiated by a review in the ninth century, and from wisdom can determine
a contribution to areas such as geometry, and trigonometry. And he said that these things were the first to use some custom, the reputations in the fields of calculus and commercial arithmetics. In very well physics, we spoke
in health science, or in his in his work in optics, which was the basis for research in this area for several centuries, and had the 5g influence on Dec on Kepler. In Finally we spoke briefly about the invention of the compass, and also contribution to our area, such as the hydrostatics, and hydraulics.
We’re now moving to today’s topics. First of all, looking at the question of medicine, could you explain for us and
the contributions to the field of medicine may may be related to the Islamic teachings, when the interest of Muslims in the field of medicine is related to teachings in more than one way?
First of all, it is related to the ethics of Islam, and that the human body is regarded as a trust in our hands given by God so that we can fulfill our trusteeship on earth.
And as such, we have no right according to Islamic ethics to destroy that body. That’s why we mentioned emulation in several series before that suicide is forgiven.
We have no right to abuse that body that is given to us by God,
whether we value the production or production of
a drink drinking for example, products or harmful drugs or prohibition of pork, and not under this, you find also that there are certain other preventative measures also that is can which have some bearing on medicine. This includes, for example, encouraging people to see keywords when they are sick, as we find medical
and assume that the profit when he says that when declared which was a serious contagious disease, it takes hours in one place, don’t lose it and don’t enter which is the modern concept of
your current team. And then hence regulations to continue.
Also the recommendation that the Prophet needed to give attention to the body when he says to your body also there is a claim or new
symptom rituals of Islam if you will use the term ritual like the prayers for example. We find that it’s very much connected with personal hygiene and cleanliness and the duration. Frequent bathing
encouraged me to sport is part of it because I can do prayer that includes the Bible testing. We have discussed that also in the series on pillars
plan has also some beneficial benefits, health wise. So in more than one respect, you can say that Muslim interest in medicine is somewhat tied in with the overall outlook of Islam towards life, human body, and health care and protection.
Now, from your understanding of the history of Muslim contributions to medicine, limited the contribution to the field of medicine first began. in
earnest in history in particular, you can say that women seem to be those of Muhammad peace be upon him. There have been an increasing interest in in health, both preventative and remedial. In fact, the use of new doctors Dr. Stein called al Harris been killed. And the purpose is to recommend people get sick to go and seek some cure. That is at the time when most people believe the miracle cure is worth
it even in the eighth century, we’ll find that some beginning of scientific interest if you will, in medicine emerged, and many of the works in medicine were translated among the prominent translators is a man with a man by the name of
in the ninth century, however, we witnessed a great deal of development in medicine. And perhaps the most prominent name in the ninth century is suffering
in English, guises, HIV or sex.
He was the chief physician in the hospital General Hospital in Baghdad. And as historians describe him, is perhaps one of the greatest physician of the home of the so called Middle Ages.
A very nominal encyclopedia, which was described by john Draper as an Indian medical encyclopedia which remained for about 600 years as one of the primary sources of knowledge about medicine. In Europe, according to Draper also, a phrase that
duck on measles and smallpox was regarded also as one of the most authoritative writings in the field and remain
in use in Europe for
nearly 100 years after and even surprisingly, it can be 18th century, more specifically in 1745 has been book was still being translated and used as a basis for understanding this, these types of
The same person also allegedly, was inspired by a scene of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon hitting record in the Korean history in which the prophets recommended the use of cold water to deal with persistent fever. So he will use it quite effectively.
He was able also to introduce the use of manipulatives and capping
it in fact, according to another historian, the one that we quoted quite frequently in this last few programs,
when he talks about the history of science, so that many contributions in the cotton mill contribution to gynecology, obstetrics, and ophthalmic surgeons, eye surgery can be traced back to him.
In the 10th century, we find that this contributions continued also by others, mostly physicians.
One of the famous news is the sad, who was the first one to write in a systematic way, on the subject of Pediatrics, or children.
In addition to contribution also to gynecology and obstetrics. Some of his works also translated into Hebrew, in Latin,
about the same period also the 18th century. And Martin was a famous physician who was particularly known for his ability in vitro fertilization of medicines about him, sure, certain cells in his first 699 in the court, that will compile at a specific time, which was immensely popular in medieval Europe. For centuries, it’s remained the standard work on the subject.
Now, historians mentioned the name of a senior is a legend in the history of medicine. I think that name may be a little bit distorted from physics is my tongue is twisted into its Islamic origins, but it’s
Can you tell us a little bit about this? This individual and how did he acquire this thing? When the Arabic numerals Yeah, because it’s not exactly in
English when you’re standing at the center of a single
Arabic speaking sooner.
Sooner is a listen, because he combined between being a scientist, philosopher, physician.
I’m not evaluating him now as a philosopher. In fact many mysteries we have some reservations about some of his philosophical ideas, but looking at his contribution as a scientist position,
it can help us to understand the kind of atmosphere that existed in the nervousness windows where
scientific investigation was encouraged with freedom of thought was very highly valued in society. It was seen out as a sin number 10, the 11th century and the Christian era. And among his most important works in medicine is something called
an English canon. Our presets of medicine composed of five volumes covering such subjects as physiology, hygiene, pathology, therapeutics,
according to historians, particularly mysteries of science, like George Sefton is that for 600 years, this Canon Canon medicine by Messina ever named as the supreme authority in medicine. In fact, he mentioned that it was the basis of all medical studies in French and Italian universities, or faculties of medicine.
In fact, it’s really surprising to notice that some of the works I’ve ever seen in medicine, were translated and used in European universities as well as the 18th century and according to some externals as, even as the early 19th century, that’s more than, you know, almost 100 years after his death. He also wrote a pharmacopoeia, which included the 760 grads and how they can be, you know, prepared, which again reflected the excellence that Muslim scientist achieved in chemistry, which was possible to apply
of medicine, but often our mind goes to the question of surgery. How about surgery? When did the Muslims get involved in this particular field, when they get involved in surgery as early as the 11th century.
In the 11th century, maybe before even back in the 11th century, we get to historical accounts of surgery to extract the cataract problem with the eyes. And they used to do that by extraction of a crystalline lens.
They were also able to treat hemorrhage, yoga particularly skillful in the use of cartelization.
Among the famous surgeons, in the entire human ages, as they are called, is accustomed and our best. Again in English. It’s ever again. The column Abacuses
who lived in Cordova and Muslim spillin and the Muslim world. It was the end of the 11th century and early 20th century
about Apple custom or Abacuses
septum. And he says volume says that he exerted a very deep influence upon the development of European surgery down to the renaissance of 699. And historian also back to the subject, john Jeffers, who we quoted before also says that the the surgical works by Abacus has
continued to be used in Europe, as well as 1497. So that’s the very end of the 15th century.
In addition to this other person, also that a medical encyclopedia composed of 30 sections covering a wide variety of problems, but he has no particularly excellence in the surgical treatment of eyes, ears and tooth doesn’t have that suppression between dental and general medicine.
It is interesting to note is that in the rankings of another semester for doctors, or doctor philosophy, even risk averse, as known in the West, in the 12th century.
Verse gives illustrations of sections of the brains and eyes insures the nerves and the illustration of some of the set
instruments used by Muslim surgeons and we can converse again.
Now, I think most of us have the impression that the anesthetics I believe laser rendering people unconscious is something that’s relatively new in the field of medicine. And yet, you’re making mention of operations and surgery are being performed. And these are very times what what did the missing physicians use to measure their patients unconscious? And these are the times when there’s clear evidence that they were able to because of course, you can go through some of these operations really without some form of anesthesia. According to john Jeffers, he said the physicians knew about
the red balloons was a kind of plant called the dominant Dr. Dr. M L. Diamond, and was to administer that in a gradual way until the patient became becomes totally unconscious and undergo the operation. So they knew something was it.
Now are there any other notable contributions that we should touch on at this point, before we examine other aspects, we want to examine some other aspects of medicine. Well, there are too many ready to.
to include a program like this, my best recommendation would be to refers to the very excellent work done by Jeff passing on the introduction to the history of Sciences where there is no problems of
contribution, but perhaps I can give you also a few more interesting contributions. For example, in useless
are spent under Muslim role. One of the notable positions was known, again dollars in
form it’s observed.
It was also the first one to write on cottony
he was outstanding, particularly in the treatment of skin diseases, the mythology as we call it today, dislocations and fractures.
In the 16th century, a famous Muslim physician by the name of Eddie Murphy’s lived in Serbia. And he wrote a great deal about how genuine imbalance, which some people regard as a relatively new field, it’s not even about direct enhance. And he demonstrated and that perhaps, was one of the amazing things he demonstrated the circulatory system. And that was, we’re talking about citizenship. That was 300 years before the Portuguese physician by the amount of service at the Mt. Seven
was able to take administered and many people think that it was that particularly efficient who know the scullery but in fact,
in addition to this, we find that Muslim physicians showed some interest and confidence also in psychopathology,
they were successful in the treatment of psychological
or using psychological treatments for some of the patients, which is something many people would consider ahead of their.
Now, medicine, hospitals course always go together. When was the first hospital built by
what we did with hospitals, nobody should make a distinction between two types. There is the mobile hospital, and then the permanent ones. If you take the first kind of the modern hospitals, you can say that these things do that as early as the surgeon Surgeon General, the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him.
For example, in the famous battle, the change or 100, when Muslims were in Medina, and the parents came to attack them, and the perfect attendance to be back around the city to defend it. In preparation for the battle, also, he already had one big tent to be set for the explicit purpose of dealing with the casualties or in the treatment of the injured during the peacetime. The concept of modern hospitals was used quite effectively.
In fact, the footnotes here many of us in this area has been impressed by a recent TV program that showed another conductor who took his mobile home and started touring the remote areas where people have no access to doctors and still need for some time in every place, you know, to keep the patients and immunity for the guy back as a very admirable which is it is a humanitarian justice. That is not limited to the 20th century. In fact,
Muslims have extensively use this modern hospitals to look after the needs of people in Rome.
Areas except in the beginning, for the first half of the 20th century. So it took about 10 years ago.
And we find that those historical
narrative about administers a review, during the time by the name of a sudden Java, wrote a letter to the chief physician in Baghdad by the name of Sofia Cabot. And he simply told him that there are so many people around in this world who have no access to health care. Why don’t you send us a kind of novel hospital with some no medicine and physicians alongside robots. And it is stated that there have been quite a few of these modern hospitals during different places history and described them as well equipped hospitals. Even though there were Paragon cannons, that’s the best we could survive by. Since that, we will have no mobile homes because we have to do but a hospital or the mobile
hospital included everything from food,
surgical instruments, as well as physicians also accompany them and kept moving from one place to the other. In fact, one historian say that in the time of the synthetic errors being September,
this modern hospitals, we can say that that one of them required as many as 40, cannons, to carry, you know, equipments, medicines and other things that are needed. In addition to this, an interesting thing also, that was found is that, in many of the mosques, or some of the mosques,
they used to have even pharmacy, small pharmacy so that during the day there is an attendance. So if you’re passing by, we had some useful medicine, you can go and you can sell the medicine to you. And on Fridays, which is the congregational prayer, like there was lots of people come to the mosque, a doctor would come to the mosque. And after the period he again examine any person who might need some medical attention as well, because of the mosque of ignorance alone in Cairo.
clinics that we see in many
persons, right, right. description of the noble hospitals has been quite graphic, what about the printed hospitals? Can you give some description of how these not well, and dependent hospitals also did not take too long to be known among Muslims.
It is believed that the first one was built in Baghdad during the caliphate of
the middle, and you’re really talking about the first half of the eighth century.
And then describing the basic structure of Muslim hospitals, they used to have two meanings, one for females and for males, and then another when there are different holes, each one is assigned for one particular disease.
And insofar as the hospital administration is concerned, each of these sections have a head position in Windows physician in chief for the entire hospital or
support staff was provided, including nurses, people who look after clothing, food preparation.
It was said also that many times, the character of himself would make surprise visits, to make sure that people are treated humanely and looked after in the hospital. They had the system which will have to go back to having the resident physician in certain shifts and not being available all the time. They’re in the hospital just in case of an emergency. But another interesting thing that the hospital also is viewed as we view many hospitals today and consider that a modern thing, which is not really the most reliable hospital. So as a research institute, and historians say that invest in hospitals after the doctors go around.
Visiting the patients, they will meet again in a big lecture hall, where the chief physician and other you know famous physician will be seated and the students,
medical students as well as young physicians sit down and they’ll start an open discussion as to what kind of cases they have seen. How did the person diagnose the disease which was a very stimulating type of
discussion. This kind of permanent hospital was widespread in the land and it is said that in Cordova under musty screaming again, alone, there were as many as 50 hospitals. Remember one problem in the past to say
Back there were nearly 1 million
during the glory of Sure.
It is mentioned also, that’s an interesting point also, that the middle of this hospital, there used to be a small farm attached to it, where fresh vegetables and fruits is planted those trees so that people can eat really
direct from the hospital. And some of them have the artificial notes, which showed that hospitals would not just view it as some form of anesthesia, the processes people in and out that as a very comfortable clothes in terms of furnishing and the aesthetic.
Beauty also habits and you know, was quite interesting. Another thing that was mentioned by this hospitals that do is to get people to play humorous scripts to chew up the sick people. And subang
ones that he heard about trust, special trust that was in Tripoli. Sir, what’s going on? Actually, I should say.
And that trust supplied funds are the funds were designated to hire two people
whose duty would be to go around and visit all hospitals around. And they talk to each other when they pass by patients beds in such a way that deliberately make the patient he has an early look at the sparkle in his eyes. Or look at the greatness of his face.
He see that is improved, which is very interesting tests and an interesting idea of the one who donated money for that test, taking into account the psychological aspects of the treatment. It’s just a silly thing to
cover this type of hospital
program. But I’d like to ask you about the questions of admission and in the payment of hospital births, and so on. Like, can you tell us about the situation with respect to information available on that shows that treatment was free for all in all of these hospitals that included his terms of travel as possible by you didn’t have to have your MSR or lacrosse or anything, it was all medical. Everything was 100 years ago.
A person usually when he entered the hospital usually was examined in an outside home, if his case is simple, is directed to the pharmacy where he can get some medicine and go home. Otherwise, he is admitted. And history is also so bad. I mean, this so called Middle Ages, especially human was recorded, then he goes through dating first before he’s admitted. And his clothes, his clothing are circling and locked up. And he’s given special hospital clothing which are closed, then he stays there. That’s the medicine, medical food.
People will look after washing his clothes also, his or her clothes depending on the person, if a person start getting over his disease is removed to another place especially designated for comparison, patient and some disturbing so that the evidence or sign that he is cured, that you’ll be able to eat a whole loaf of bread and hot chicken.
When the person was discharged from the hospital, if he’s poor, you used to be given new clothes. And in some cases, even some amount of money until he recovers and is able to earn his living again. The person who come to value them he’s washed in the coffin is made and he’s
prepared for a burial.
Another interesting feature also is that for those who prefer to have their treatment at home, they were unmarried and medicine was sent to them. And if they were poor, even food was sent to their own homes.
In fact, one visitor came in the 12th century to the hospital in Baghdad and the treatment and care server pretended to be sick. He was admitted the doctor most of his testing for the cure. And after some time, you know, don’t let him stay there as giving him all kinds of foods and foods and everything. And then after three days there are things that you host people only for three days, which is
the maximum so he understood that they knew that he was not set but it was a clear indication of the kind of care and attention given to
this thing. Firstly, we don’t have any more time left in today’s program. Thank you for watching, we invite you back next week we will continue our series Thank you for watching Assalamu alaikum peace be unto you