Claims about Examining the Tradition of the Prophet through the lens of Quran

نوح بن أبي مريم

The claim that the narratives of the Prophet’s Sunnah, their authenticity should be examined and scrutinized first from the Quran,was an idea that was issued relatively old and recently renewed. It was issued in the past by non-specialists and the cries of modernists and their likenesses rose to it, and it became one of the methods of judging the hadith, its validity and weakness followed by some people without sound knowledge. This methodology can be questioned from the standard of religion and logic.

 As for the religion narration, it is the hadith that says “If a hadith is narrated from me, expose it to the Book of God, if it conforms with it, accept it, and if it does not, then reject to it” 

And the hadeeth: “Whatever came to you from me, present it to the Book of God, if it conforms with it, then I said it, and what does not, I did not say it.” 

And the hadith: “Sayings from me is three, so whatever hadith conveyed to you from me that you know it with the Book of God Almighty, accept it, and whatever hadith reported to you   from me that you did not find in the Qur’an what denies it neither do you know its position in it, so accept it, and whatever Hadith narrated to you from me that gives you shivers and disgusts and you found that The Qur’an is against it, then reject it. Among other reported narrations from different sources. 

As from the logic, the status of the Sunnah is represented in the Qur’an in terms of confirming the narration and receiving it. The Qur’an is more reliable and confirmed. It’s validity is confirmed in succession while the prophetic report is not often so, for this reason it is pertinent to expose to the Qur’an to clarify its authenticity or otherwise, and because the report must only be accepted by completing the conditions of acceptance in it, and among its conditions is that it does not contradict the Book of God Almighty which can only be known by exposition  ” . In light of what some Hanafi scholars and theologians decide.

Abu Al-Mudhafar Al-Samaani says: “A group of the companions of Abu Hanifa said that it should be exposed to the book (The Qur’an). It would be accepted if nothing contradicts it from the Qur’an, or else it will be rejected. And this is the opinion of most theologians.

Abu Zayd al-Dabbousi al-Hanafi said: “The narration of single person is criticized – after it is proven – from four ways – then he mentioned from them -: the exposition to the Book of God Almighty, which can then be circulated with its approval, and rejected by contradicting it … because the Book of God Almighty is proven certain and the report of a single person is proven with suspicion, so the rejection of a suspicious report is worthier than the rejection of a  certain one. . And other rumors supporting the theory of the necessity of exposing the Sunnah to the book (The Qur’an).

 Assessment of source of Narration and logic

Modernity relied on such narrations and sayings and flew with them to support the saying of the methodology of exposing the noble hadith to the glorious Qur’an, so that they could later use it in marketing ideas of skepticism and attacking the Prophet’s Sunnah, especially in the Sunnahs that did not agree with their inclinations and minds, but the fact here is clear, They were not happy with any of these prophetic narrations, because they are rejected and none of them are correct. Rather, some of them were the work of heretics, as Ibn Mahdi, Ibn Ma’in and other critics of the hadith said.

Some scholars have relinquished working with this theory – arguably – so they contemplated on this proposition, and the following appeared to them: We expose this hadith to the Book of God before everything and we rely on that. They said: When we exposed it to the Book of God, we found it contrary to the Book of God. Because we did not find in the Book of God that the hadith of the Messenger of God should not be accepted except for what the Book of God agrees with. Rather, we found that the Book of God gives command to follow and obey it, and warns of contradicting its command generally in any case. 

As for the theory that has been raised and woven around the subject – criticizing the Sunnah through its exposition to the Qur’an – it is a disputing theory, because it arose from the lack of knowledge and experience of the hadith’s scientist’s approach to criticism, and those who say it are not in the field and specialists, even if some of them are scholars of distinguished jurisprudence, but the research Here is a study in the science of hadith. This choice of them is not consistent with the Hadith critical approach, and the scholars of hadith did not favor it as the principle of correction and weakening. The old generation scholars of Hanafi did not correctly say that, rather, it is a new approach taken by the late generation of the madhab, starting from ‘Isa bin Aban Al-basri Al-hanafi, the theologian which became famous in the doctrine after that.

And their saying: “because the Book of God Almighty is proven certain and the report of a single person is proven with suspicion, so the rejection of a suspicious report is worthier than the rejection of a  certain one.” Yes! The book is undoubtedly certain, but “The claim of suspicion regarding the validity of single person’s report from the Messenger of God, may God’s blessings and peace be upon him, is liken to someone who claims specification in a general evidence without proof, or that this absolute evidence is restricted without proof, or that this ruling is abrogated without evidence of what abrogated it, and so on, so how easy are the claims !!! ”.

Then “the issue in not about single person’s report at all, nor in terms of theory, this is of no value. Rather, researching is on the advantage the authentic prophetic narration that was reported through a single person, which was recorded in the collections of scholars such as the two Sahihs. ” And others, whose acceptance are not questionable, and the opinion which state that it denotes uncertainty is first said and praised by the Mu’tazila and their offspring, in which they mixed truth with falsehood, with the intention of establishing that the narration of single person should not be accepted in matter of the creed based on the claim of uncertainty in his authenticity, but the general mass of the Muslim scholars both predecessors and successors is the necessity to work with it, even those them that opined that the narration of a single person denotes uncertainty, because of the concerted evidences that can be seen in the books of commentaries on hadith, creed, jurisprudence and so on.

There is no need to establish the principle that a fixed hadith must be exposed to the Noble Qur’an before it is put into work, so that the extent of it agreeing or disagreeing with it is known, Claiming suspicion of validity of the connection.  

Moreover, this behavior is preceded by the consensus of jurists and scholars jurisprudence fundamental, based on complete satisfaction with the scholars of Hadith’s critical approach to correcting and weakening, and that this matter and workmanship are reserved for them, because their approach is a guarantor and trustworthy for the purity and survival of the Prophet’s Sunnah. Is it not enough that among their conditions of authenticity of a Hadith is that it must not be odd And blemish? They are the most severe conditions of correctness at all, because their scope is the retraction for trustworthy narrators and revealing the errors of their narratives and delusions, and if there is anomaly and blemish in the hadith – be it in the chain of narrator’s or the text of the hadith – with the rest of the conditions being fulfilled, then there is no need after that to the method of doubt and to promote the suspicion in the established Sunnahs by exposing it to the Quran. Reality has proven that there are no two contradictory correct pieces of evidence in the law of God Almighty.

Imam Ibn Hazm said: There is nothing in the hadith that is authenticated that contradicts the Holy Qur’an and there is no way to have a true report that contradicts what is in the Qur’an originally, and every Shari’a reports is either added to what is in the Qur’an and interpretation for its entirety, or it is exclusion from its entirety, and there is no way to third option.

Imam Al-Shafi’i said: “The saying of those who said: The Sunnah must be exposed to the Qur’an if it appeared compatible, otherwise we use the apparent meaning of the Qur’an and we left the hadith, is ignorance for what I have described. Allah has explained to us that the Sunnah of His messenger is mandatory on us to resolve to and do nothing but submission to it and follow it, it should also not be exposed on  analogy and anything else. ” 

Abu Al-Mudhaffar Al-Sam’ani said – during his response to Al-Dabbousi Al-Hanafi on this issue -: The prophetic report is an evidence in itself if it is proven, and it is not necessary to expose it, and specifying the generality of the book with it is permissible … Allah the most exalted said: (Obey God and obey the Messenger) [An-Nisa: 59] He commanded to follow Sunnahs of the Prophet and also ordered to follow the book, and if so, what is proven to have been established from him must accepted which is not permissible to suspend in order to expose it to the book, and this is because it is an evidence in itself and should not be presented to another evidence to correspond with oppose.” 

Another refutation of this principle is the hadith: “ Beware! I have been given the Qur’an and something like it, yet the time is coming when a man replete on his couch will say: Keep to the Qur’an; what you find in it to be permissible treat as permissible, and what you find in it to be prohibited treat as prohibited. 

Al-Khattabi says in his explanation of the hadith : “ The hadith indicates that there is no need for the hadith to be exposed to the book; For however it is proven on the authority of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, it is a proof itself. ”

Moreover, the fate of the necessity of presenting the hadith to the Qur’an carries within it the non-appreciation of the efforts of the scholars of Hadith in their critical statements, and therefore it is allows those who do not possess the basics of critical understanding and correct legal understanding to interfere in matters of accepting and rejecting the narrations according to their intellectual mood as seen nowadays.

Imam Ibn al-Qayyim, may God have mercy on him, says : “ If a rejecting the Sunnah of the Messenger of God, may God’s blessings and peace be upon him, is acceptable for what one understood from the outward appearance of the Book, then most of the Sunnahs would be rejected and nullified altogether. And he says this Sunnah is contrary to this general and absolute, so it is not accepted. ”

The main thing is to say that this modern scientific terrain has its specialists and critics that are necessary to return to and follow their approach is a duty to say and act on, in order to preserve the life of religion and to fail the efforts of the abusers.

Exposing the Sunnah to the book for the purpose of understanding and verification

The defect should not creep into the minds to cause confusion between the issue of the necessity of presenting the Sunnah to the Qur’an and what was reported by some of the Companions that they were preferring the outward appearance of the Qur’an over the Sunnah, as in the phenomenon of the act of the mother of the believers Aisha, may God be pleased with her in several places, such as the hadith of the Prophet’s seeing his Lord in the night of Isra, and the hadith of torturing the deceased by the weeping of his family over him, and the hadith of ominous exist in three things, and other hadiths that may not go beyond tiptoe.

The most correct and clear scholarly biography of the noble Companions is that they did not observe the methodology of the necessity of presenting the hadith to the Qur’an and they did not make it a basis for judging the Sunnah of the Prophet, and the uttermost of what is understood from the actions of Aisha, may God be pleased with her, and from the actions of other Companions is that it was a struck of an attempt to understand the Sunnah of the Prophet in light with the Noble Qur’an and with what other evidences meant for a sound and good understanding of the prophetic hadith, not for negligence or total reluctance on the pretext of contradiction, and therefore the contemplator finds in what has been mentioned in this regard from the narrations that it is not the subject of agreement between the Companions and those after them. Give and take because the issue is a matter of controversy and understanding and not a matter of methodology.

In addition to that, what was mentioned in this chapter on the authority of Aisha, may God be pleased with her and others is very little compared to their general narratives, which indicates that they did not pay attention to the way of presenting the hadith to the book as the basis, and therefore it is necessary not to rely on rare facts that are not explicit in the demand, because the result is awful and bad, and it is what leads in the end to saying that some or all of the chapters of the Sunnah are denied.

Yes! A distinction must be made between the later Hanafi doctrine and the approach of the modernists. The Hanafis are among the imams of the religion, and they are not those who reject the narrations of single person, may God forbids that for them, but they went in this issue the way of scientific methodology that may not be free of counter logic, with their belief of the considering the prophetic Sunnah as an evidence and revering it rightly.    

As for the modernists and their ilk, they set out from the realization of their pernicious goals to halt the Sunnah of the Prophet, and adopt the foundations of introducing reasoning and its primacy, and re-reading the new Islamic heritage according to their opinions.

And both types – the Hanafi and modernity – are similar in saying and differ in intention and destination, and there is a difference between the Hanafis who are known for knowledge, religion and virtue, and between the new self-acclaimed scholars who do not know about religion except occasionally.

It remains that God, may He be glorified and exalted, has made the critical curricula of the hadiths scholars as obstacles to every denier of the Sunnah and intruders on its branches in any way, and praise be to God the watcher.

All articles published not necessarily the official points of view held by islamonline