Before the Prophet (Pbuh) shaped the economic aspect of Madinah state, it is known that when the immigrants arrived in Madinah, their brothers the Ansar received them from the base of brotherhood with love and selflessness which similarity is uncommon in the history of mankind. To the extent that Allah almighty said about them: (Those who came to the city and to faith before them, love those who take refuge with them, and do not feel for themselves any need for what is given them, and give them preference over themselves even if they are indigent. Whoever preserves himself from his own greed will be prosperous.) Al-Hashr 9.
And among what the Ansar offered to the immigrants was to divide among them their money, land and house, but the immigrants thanked them for their generosity, and they worked in various life activities with their Ansar brothers.
The Ansar were farmer owners and they said to the Prophet: “divide the palm-trees between us and our brethren, but he replied, “No; save us the trouble of maintenance and we shall share the fruit with you.” They said, “We hear and we obey.” ” Narrated by Bukhari .
The revival of the land
A major farming process began in the city, followed by a movement to revive the neglected agricultural land, according to the Sharia rule laid down by the Prophet, “Whoever revives a barren land, it is his,” narrated by Al-Bukhari.
The Messenger apportioned to Ali bin Abi Talib water springs in Yanbu, which became famous later for its large production, and Ali, may God be pleased with him, worked in it himself.
He also apportioned to Al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam a land in Medina, which he invested in agriculture in the lifetime of the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace .
Many of the valleys that were cultivated in the Prophet’s era were famous, including Wadi Al-Aqiq, which is the most important valley in the city and contains the money of the people of the city and their farms.
Also among the important valleys that were used for agriculture in the Medina are the “Bat’han” valley, which housed the Bani Nadir farms and their money, as well as the “Mahzuz” valley that had Qurayza’s money, the “Canal” valley, which is the third valley in the Medina, and the “Ranona” valley.
Also from the valleys whose land were benefited from in agriculture, “Wadi al-Qura”, also in Taif many valleys that were benefited from in agriculture were known, the most important of which is Wadi “Wuj”, and it is located in west of Taif, and it has many farms and orchards that is supplemented by some other valleys, as well as Wadi “Leh”. It is located east and near Taif.
Developing the economic aspect
The immigrants and the Ansar were not the only ones who established the agricultural renaissance in Medina, but among the agricultural workers in Medina, other young men who converted to Islam and joined them. What indicates the abundance of loyalists is that when the Messenger surrounded Al-Taif and announced the liberation of those who descended to it, twenty-three slaves from Al-Taif descended to him. There was a large group of pro-Ethiopians working in Medina in the fields of the Ansar, and their tangible presence was indicated when the Messenger, may God’s blessings and peace be upon him, came to Medina on the day of the migration, these Ethiopians went out, met and played with their spears, rejoicing at the Prophet’s arrival to Medina.
These young sects had an undeniable influence on the development of agriculture during the Prophet’s era .
And when the Messenger entered Medina and stayed for seven months in the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, the supporters of the Messenger of God conceded all the bounty that was in their plans .. so that he could organize the Medina in an organization that allowed the sponsorship of their immigrant brothers, but they – may God be pleased with them – said to the Messenger: O Prophet of God : If you wish, take our homes .. Then the Messenger thanked them for their saying.
The Messenger asked Asaad bin Zurara (the captain of the captains) to sell him land connected to the mosque that Asaad had built for himself, so Asaad offered him that the Messenger take it as a gift from him, but he refused, to establish the legal balance in dealing with him, and he paid the price of ten dinars from Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq’s money May Allah be pleased with him.
Then the Messenger ordered “brick” to be taken, so it was taken, and the mosque (the Prophet’s Mosque) was built with it and its foundation was raised with stones, and a roof with leaves, and its pillars were made with logs, and with this the Messenger set the basic and religious rule in building the city due to the multiplicity of functions that his honorable mosque used to perform, which must be established. And which every mosque must establish.
And based on the mandate of the Ansar – may God be pleased with them – of the Messenger to build the economic aspect so that a new Islamic fabric ( brotherhood) is achieved for the new society, the Messenger directed dealing with “water and planting” in a manner that ensures maximum effectiveness.
When the Banu Haritha, one of the Ansar, said to him: “Oh Messenger of God, here are the theaters of our camels and the pasture of our sheep, and the exit of our women – they mean the watering site – the Messenger said to them: Whoever cuts a tree, let him plant another in its place, so we planted the forest.”
The Messenger of God has ruled that water be retained in the ground up to the ankles in mahzur valley and then send it to the other, so the upper does not prevent the lower, (which is a process that is included in the section on water regulation with regard to agriculture) and in this framework – also – is mentioned on the authority of Abd al-Rahman bin al-Harith that the Messenger of God ruled concerning the stream of Mahzur that the water should be retained until it reached the ankles, then released.
Hafs bin Ghayath told us on the authority of Jaafar bin Muhammad on the authority of his father, who said: The Messenger of God ruled concerning the stream of mahzur that for the palm owners up to the heels, and for the plantations owners up to the shoelace, then send water to those who are below them.
On the authority of Ibn Ja`duba and others, they said: Medina almost drowned in the caliphate of Uthman from the stream of mahzur until Uthman put a block to it.
With regard to the land and its minerals or its cultivation, the Messenger distributed the land left in Medina to the Companions, so, He peace be upon him, apportioned to Bilal bin Al-Harith minerals in the suburbs, that is, land containing minerals.
On the authority of Ja`far ibn Muhammad, the Messenger of God, may God be pleased with him, apportioned four lands for Ali: two poor, the well of Qais, and the tree.
On the authority of Abu ‘Ikrimah, the slave of Bilal bin al-Harith al-Muzani, he said: The Messenger of God apportioned to Bilala a land that contains a mountain and a mineral, so the sons of Bilal sold to Omar bin Abdul Aziz land from it, and mineral appeared on it or said two minerals, so they said: We bought you a land to plow, and we did not sell you minerals.
And they brought the Prophet’s book to them in a leaf, and Umar accepted it, wiped his eye with it, and said to his curator: Look what came out of it and what was spent and tell them about alimony, and return the credit to them.