Welcome to our programming our series dealing with the sources of Islam. Today we’ll be continuing with our topic of the Bible is a possible source of the Quran. I’m your host, Tamar Rashid and I have joined me on the program as usual Dr. Jamal Bradley of St. Mary’s University, but the Jamal I stumbled upon it.
Before we go on to the program for the day, could I have you very quickly as our fashion highlight the main points that we talked about last week, certainly, last program was a continuation of the discussion of some of the differences between the biblical and Quranic versions with respect to matters of creed in particular.
The basic view really or the basic purpose behind it was to show that the claim that some orientalist make the doctrine was based on the Bible or borrowed from the Bible is not really true.
The main focus of the previous program was on the issue of sin,
repentance and atonement in both the Bible and the Quran. And we compared and contrasted both of them, especially with issues relating to the human nature, salvation, inheritance of the sin, necessity of bloodshed in order to attain repentance and reconciliation.
In addition to this, we touched briefly also on some of the other related issues. For example, try to show that the sacrifice of animals and the feast of sacrifice, the Muslim piece of advice has nothing to do with the notion of shedding blood for forgiveness.
brief discussion also of life after death, the question of intermediary between men and gods, or between the human and the Creator, the absence of Islam or any notion of the church, as an exclusive authority, or clergy, and the view of life as an integrated and comprehensive whole. And from all of that, we said that the fundamental beliefs in Islam really are quite independent and consistent with each other, which shows that the Quran as a unit as an integrated whole, is not really copying or borrowing from any other source.
But I’d like to now turn to some examination of some of the historical information in the toolbox. So first of all, is the information in the Bible which is not confirmed by the Koran? Yes, there are I mean, there are too many, perhaps you can just look at a few examples. And actually answering this question. Now, you have to make some cross reference to some of the things that you mentioned before, so I just touched on it.
Maybe add a few more points. But
for example, in the discussion in the previous program, we talked about the the story of Adam and Eve. And we find again, there are certain things in the Bible there which are not unlike the serpent and so on.
Or Eve being basically blamed for hunting Adam.
In the Quran, also, we don’t find any parallels to what we find in the Bible. In Genesis 12, and 26. Pertaining to Prophet Abraham claiming that Sarah, his wife was his sister in order just to save himself. There is no pattern like that in the Quran?
No, do you find the parallel of what is in Genesis 32, about prophet Jacob wrestling with God, and that’s why he was called Israel afterwards. There is no parent in the Quran, for example, of some of the things that are attributed to him. They attributed to Prophet Aaron, the brother of Moses, making the golden calf for example, in Exodus 12, or to Solomon’s heart being inclined towards the pagan gods of his of his wives, as we find for example, in the first kings and chapter 11.
And nor do we find the parallel in the Quran to the stories about profit loads
found in Genesis 19, especially verses 30 on or to what has been attributed to Prophet David with respect to his affair with the or alleged affair with
the wife of Uriah the Hittite as we find, for example, in the Bible and the Second Samuel chapter 11
Another thing also, for example, with respect to another great prophet, Prophet, Jesus peace be upon him. You find that why the Quran indicates very clearly that he was
the servant of God, servant of Allah and messenger like great prophets, such as Abraham, Moses or Muhammad.
We don’t find any trace as we may find in the New Testament, which could be interpreted even in one way or the other, as relating to the question of divinity, that he was a prophet, a great prophet of God.
But in addition to this point that you just made cross reference to,
we find that there are also additional things
that are not found in the Quran, which is there in the Bible, for example, and the 27th book, 27th chapter of the book of Genesis, especially verses 15, on we are told that Jacob, Prophet Jacob, peace be upon him, deceived his father, Isaac, and led him to believe that he was sow and brought him the food and so on in order to take the blessing, which was legitimately his house. And the story seemed to not involve deliberate change of facts and deception on his part, we find there is nothing like that at all in the Quran, except praise for Jacob, his father and all other prophets, for that matter.
Similarly, in the book of Exodus, for example, we find something that has no parallel in the Quran at all. In the 12 chapters of Exodus, especially in verse 13, we are told that God commanded the Israelites before he come to Egypt to destroy the Egyptians, that they should mark their homes with blood ecomark, so that when God comes, he will recognize their homes and pass over to me with this origin of the word also, they pass over them, and not to destroy them as he destroyed the Egyptians.
This are only like I said, a few examples of many others that you can point to where not everything in the in the Bible really can be found. In the crown, there are differences there
are skeptics who are watching the program might suggest that what you’ve been alluding to are
mere details, which might have been somehow dropped or left out in the process of borrowing from the from the Bible. How would you respond to that?
Okay, well, I would say that these are not mere details, because some of those differences that you find between the biblical stories and the Quranic stories are quite consistent in the Quran very much.
They are related, not just to a few details here and there on history, but they are related to certain basic themes that you find in the Quran. An example of the Quran emphasize, for example, this question of divine attributes, that God or Allah is not subject to human weakness does not need to rest, it does not walk and make now noise is not in the physical form. And you find that everything that was mentioned there, or any difference that was mentioned, between the Bible and the Quran seem to focus more on this aspects of transcendence, of deity or God.
Similarly, the example I just gave, for example, on the prophets, and that there is no parallel, you find that in all of them, in the biblical versions, the prophets are, are seem to be accused of some measure and fractions by way of faith or modern measure modern sense. And you find that not a single one appear in the Quran. So it’s not just a matter of dropping details, because that’s consistent also, with the way the Quran detect prophets, as mentioned before the Select of the select that God chose them specially, because of their piety and good behaviors, and that the kind of description that should be given to them is much more much better, actually more favorable than what we find,
for example, in the in the Bible. So the what we’re saying here is that it’s not just the text, they are totally related, and fully consistent with the themes in the Quran pertaining to the various issues where there are differences. So it’s not just an incidental or haphazard type of differences. And that indeed, indicates that the source of the Quran really is revelation, not just a search of borrowing from here or there.
Can you give us a few examples of stories
that are in the Quran, but are not found in the Bible. And just taking the reverse. Yes, yes, that would be an interesting aspect also, because, again, if you’re borrowing, you may drop some details. But if there is more in the Quran about even ancient prophets, then what is there already in the Bible, then that raises an interesting question where this information came from. All right. In a previous program, for example, we mentioned the repentance on the part of Adam and Eve after they ate from the tree and that their repentance was accepted. So there was no Original Sin at all, as far as the sound is concerned. That appears, for example, in the Quran in chapter two, verse 37, and
There are also stories of other ancient prophets, like the people of iron and temos, that is Prophethood and Salah,
for which I couldn’t find a parallel in the Bible, for example, you find something about those prophets in Surah 22 in the Quran,
and the Quran also in telling the story of Prophet Noah.
We are told in Surah 11, verse 42, that Noah also had a sort of dialogue with his son, you see when the flood started, and No, I wasn’t the ark. And it says in the Quran that Noah had some conversation with his son who was unbeliever, and he invited him actually to come over, or to come on board with him in the ark, but he refused, and he was perched with the other unbelievers. Again, I couldn’t find a pyramid for that in the Bible,
about Prophet Abraham. There are so many things that you are found in the Quran that again, to the best of my knowledge has no parallel and the
one in Surah 42. In the Quran,
particularly verse 19, we are told about a dialogue that went on between Abraham and his father, he was trying to invite his father to come to become a believer
in Surah, two, and 258. We are also taught in the Quran about a dialogue that went on between Prophet Abraham and one of the tyrannical rulers, and trying to challenge him on the roller claim that he can give life and death. And then Abraham said, Alright, if you can do everything, Amar brings the sun from the east. So bring it from the western, which made that Thailand to be stunned about this logic of Abraham.
In surah, 21, and 57, we are told also of Prophet Abraham, staying behind during one of their festivals, the Festival of his people, and going inside the temple and destroying the items that his people used, used to worship. We are taught also in Surah, 21 and 69, that his people, when they suspected that he was the culprit, the one who did it, they actually made a big fire, and they throw him into that fire to kill him. And we are told also in the Quran, that miraculously he came out without scratch even that God ordered the fires to be cool, and it should not hurt Abraham which is different. Of course, from the natural laws, we know that was a miracle. In a way in in Surah, two,
again, we find a story of Prophet Abraham, bringing to life with the permission and Command of Allah, the Four Bears that were cut, and mixed together and put in different mountains. And that was actually in response to Prophet Abraham’s petition to Allah to show him how he brings that to life again, in the story of Prophet Moses in the surah. In the Quran, there is a detailed discussion of a command that was given to the Israelites through Moses, to slaughter a cow and the kind of dialogue that went on between Moses and the Israelites.
Interesting enough about the study of Prophet Jesus peace be upon him. There are even more mentioned of some of the quote unquote, miracles that God meets through Jesus.
That is not to my knowledge found in the New Testament. An example is the surah three in the Quran, and 46. It says that Jesus was able miraculously to speak to people in the cradle.
in Surah, three, verse 49, and also we can refer to sort of five, verse 113. We are also taught that one of the signs that Allah or God gave to you
This is to allow him to make out of clay, the similar material or similarly on ice, the shape of a bird, and then breathe into it In the name of Allah, and then it become an alive bird, by the permission or by leave of Allah. To the best of my knowledge, again, this is not something that I’ve ever seen in the, in the New Testament. So the main point that, you know, being need to be cleared here is that, how could it be? If the Quran was simply copying or adapting from the Bible and dropping parts? How come there are so much other details about the stories of prophets that does not appear in the Bible, unless again, we have the untenable assumption that there was a deliberate
attempt on the part of the prophet to fabricate stories and just to make it look different, which, of course, we have discussed that in several, several programs in the past, which is totally untenable. So where did this information come from?
Another scenario that perhaps we should spend some time talking about is the situation where you have stories which are common in both of the books. Are they basically identical or, or are there also some variations, important variations, what the there are some points, some details here and there, of course, that you can find similar, if not even identical. But there are also some differences, which I think God is quite significant.
Just going through a few of the major prophets, for example, to see how they are similar or different. In the story of Prophet Abraham, for example, we are told in the Bible that he was ordained to take his only son, Isaiah, quote, unquote. And as we have indicated in the previous program, that is totally untenable, because the only son for 14 years was Ishmael, not Isaac, because both are illegitimate children of Abraham, the Quran doesn’t have that difficulty at all. Because in Surah 37, it’s clearly implied from the sequence of events there, that that sign of sacrifice actually was Fishman.
Also in the same story in Genesis 22, we are left with the impression that Abraham was more or less evasive with his son, when he took him for a sacrifice, that his son kept asking me, but he never told him exactly what he was going to do to him. And the Quran is quite different in Surah 37, especially in an area or verse one or two.
We are taught that when Abraham was directed to sacrifice his son, he went to him. And he told him that this is what I’ve been ordained to do. Yes, his son said, Yes, my father, do whatever you’re ordained, you will find me among those who are Christians.
In the same chapter, also in Genesis 22, we are taught that
Abraham took his wife Hagar, and his son, Ishmael, to the wilderness of Beersheba. In the Quran, however, in the same surah, we are told that they were taken to a the holy place, the site of the Kaaba,
about another prophet, for example, Prophet cludes.
In the Bible, and the Quran, there is some similarity, at least in a sense that these people used to be be doing some abominable things, and that he had guests who were actually changes but in the form of humans, and that is people who are pursuing those guests, and they surrounded his house. To that extent, there are some similarities. However, the Bible indicates, as we find, for example, in Genesis 19, that Prophet flutes offered his two daughters to those people and said, do with them as you wish but you know, spare my, my guests. In the Quran, we don’t find this kind of analogy at all. In fact,
we are taught that the Quran in surah 11, that when these people came and surrounded his house, he told them, not my daughter, she said, there, there are my daughters and plural,
which are cleaner and fewer for you. Which means here that speaking as a prophet, as a father of his people, refer to wives or the female
section of the society as his daughters. And he says to them, Why do you have to do this abominable thing here are the, you know, daughters, if you want to get married, we get, we’ll get you married to them but don’t don’t do these things. And that’s why diverse actually says who not how lucky they are pure for you through the natural marital relationship. So there’s a big difference even though again, in both of them he
said, these are my daughters. But variations are quite, quite significant. In the same story also but profit loads. According to Genesis 926, we are taught that his wife, the wife of Luke, look back, and she turned into a pillar of salt.
In the Quran, however, we are taught that she was not even out with him, she was unbeliever herself. And she did not join with him to be saved. And she was actually punished like her people, for example, you find that in the Quran and 6610 1118
shows a different orientation altogether. In the story of Moses, for example, in Exodus 2012, one gets the impression that Moses actually deliberately wanted to kill the Egyptian who was fighting with another fellow Israelite, because it says he looked around and he made sure that the road of the way was cleared, and then he killed the Egyptian. At least that’s the impression left by the way, the story is presented in Genesis in the Quran. However, in Surah, 28, it is obvious that it was involuntary manslaughter, because it simply said that the Egyptian was persecuting that Israelites. So he sought the help of Moses. So mothers just want to, you know, strike him by way of
defending bad satellites. But it happened that his hand was probably a bit heavy, and that the Federal died as a result. So it’s an involuntary manslaughter, not really somebody deliberately looking to see
if anybody else can see him.
So what I’m saying basically, is that
this variable variations again, are not sort of haphazard, dropping, and adding or something of that sort, they are all consistent again, with all the principles and all the themes that you have seen before. And that has been elaborated in the Quran. And furthermore, these stories are obviously, of events that preceded even the birth of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. And the Quran makes it clear that neither he that’s Prophet Mohammed or his people
who are aware of this information before
we can you give us a few references to clarify this last point. That is the fact that this information
was not known to the prophet or to his to his people, even the condition from the Quran? Yes, yes, there are several differences to that in the Quran. One, for example, after discussion of the story of Prophet Joseph, that you find an answer, number one, which actually has the name of Joseph, in verse one or two, it says,
very common, and very light, you know, he like that these are information that will reveal unto you or Mohammed witches or not you.
In a similar statement also about Prophet Noah, in Surah 11 verse 49,
it repeats the same thing, indicating that this information was not known to the product or his people did come in and bail vaping or feed her ileka marquita Talamo her mocha mocha, which translates that such that stories are inflammation in the Quran, of the unseen, which We have revealed on to Mohammed before this, that is before this revelation, neither you, nor your people knew it.
In the Quran, also in the story about Mary, and the fact that she was in the custody or accepted in the custody of zaccaria profits or Korea.
In surah, three, verse 44, it ends again that the Prophet was not present there in order to find out and know this information, showing again, that it has a different source. It’s revelation actually given to him. The same thing about Prophet Moses, as you find in Surah 28, particular verse 44. So it’s obvious then when you talk about borrowing, there is no point of borrowing and if the challenge, the current presented to the contemporaries of the puppet, or people later on for that matter. We’re aware
that this information is not true, though that you could have easily proved that the Quran is false or did not come from Revelation say, No. The Quran says that we didn’t know about this, there is no Inuit. So nobody could challenge it that actually this were fresh, new information that people actually were not aware of. So what did the Prophet get to get from? Unless, again, it’s a revelation. Well, you mentioned Mary and the answer to the previous question. This raises an interesting
The side issue, some more and some more analysts are puzzled because the Quran calls Mary, the sister of Aaron. And they wonder how could that possibly be? Okay? I think the biggest problem for them is that they
are not totally aware of the usage of the Arabic language and solid expressions used in Arabic When you say his
brother or sister literally, it could have two buildings. It could have the meaning of, let’s say, blood, brother or sister. It could mean also brotherhood or sisterhood and faith. It could also mean brothers or sister with in terms of clans. Yes. All right. And this is not unusual. For example, in the Quran in surah, seven, verse 64, it says unto the people of their brotherhood doesn’t mean necessarily blood brother, but their brother, one of them.
And then the Quran, actually there is reference to the relationship between Mary, the mother of Jesus speaking upon him and Aaron. And the contexts of that verse is quite interesting, because it’s answered the question clearly, it say that when Mary,
you know, give birth, the Prophet Jesus peace be upon him, she came back to her people, and they started rebuking her, of course, they accused her of committing adultery, as you know, so they were studying hard, all sister of Aaron,
your father was not an evil man, nor was your mother’s and unchaste woman, that’s my new Corolla 1928. So the context then, that says, You are sister of Ellen, that is, you are similar to Aaron, who was the first and the priestly lineage, as you know, among the Israelites, you are your sister in worship and devotion to God in that sense, and you commit this kind of act. And let’s remember also that Aaron, like indicated earlier was the first in the priestly succession. And Mary has set up and her family and the family of Zachary was relative to them also, they come also from a priestly family. So how could that be fitting, they were saying, for a priestly family to do this.
By the way, there is an interesting explanation also of this, sister of Aaron and the relationship, and the commentary on the translation of the Quran, by Yusuf Ali, in particular in the commentary on chapter three, verse 35, and chapter 19, verse
28. And by the way, just as a side observation, there are been lots of learned Christians who embraced Islam during the life of Muhammad peace be upon him. And that’s the way they understood it didn’t cause any problem at all.
It’s a problem that some Orientals created right, actually, one of the closing minutes of today’s program. It may be argued by some particularly those who are skeptics that these historical events that we’ve been discussing whether they appear in the Bible or the Koran, are difficult to verify. How do we know which version is more accurate? Well, it is quite true. To be fair, that yes, there are certain historical things that are impossible now to get any additional data in order to examine which of the versions is relatively more accurate, or is the accurate one, whichever the case
that is if the one really wants to be totally impartial about it. But in addition, there are also other aspects which modern science and modern scientific information can really shed some light on that. And perhaps one of the best references on that subject is a book that was written by Maurice bouquet.
In the English translation, it’s the Bible, the Quran, and science. Unfortunately, we don’t have as much time really to get into that. But if you wish we can explore that further.
We’ll leave it for today because we’ve exhausted our time. We’ll come back to it next week. We want to invite you back when we’ll continue with our series. We’ll talk about the Quran and modern sciences. Thank you for watching. Assalamu alaikum peace be unto you