AdhanThe call to Prayer (salah), usually issued from the minaret of a mosque.
`Arafah or `Arafat A desert location approximately 14.5 km (9 miles) east of Makkah where the pilgrim spends 9 Dhul-Hijjah as a rite of Hajj. The waqfah is performed at `Arafah.
DammAlso known as kaffarah. The atonement required of a pilgrim for a willful violation of a prohibition or obligation while in the state of ihram.
Day of An-Nahr (Arabic: Yawm An-Nahr)This day, 10 Dhul-Hijjah, is designated as the preferred day of sacrifice during Hajj.
Day of At-Tarwiyah (Arabic: Yawm At-Tarwiyah)The start of the Hajj, on 8 Dhul-Hijjah. The pilgrim proceeds to Mina on this day.
Days of Tashreeq (Arabic: Ayyam At-Tashreeq)These are 11, 12, and 13 Dhul-Hijjah. On these days, the pilgrim throws pebbles at the stone pillars, a ritual known as rami, in Mina. The name Tashreeq, related to the word for sunrise, comes from the practice in the past of drying the meat of the sacrifices in the sun on those days.
Dhul-HijjahThe last month of the Islamic calendar.
`Eid Al-AdhaThe Islamic public celebration of sacrifice performed on 10 Dhul-Hijjah. An animal such as a sheep or goat is sacrificed as a commemoration of Prophet Ibrahim’s (peace and blessings be upon him) willingness to sacrifice his son Isma`il for Allah.
HadiHadi is a sacrificial animal immolated in the name of Allah by the pilgrim. It is to be slaughtered in Al-Haram and distributed among the poor and the needy.
HajjOne of the five pillars or central duties of Islam. It is a set of acts of worship to be performed in and around Makkah at least once in a lifetime by every Muslim satisfying certain conditions.  There are three types of Hajj, ifrad, qiran and tamattu` (see individual entries below).
Al-Hajar Al-Aswad The Black Stone built into the southeast corner of the Ka`bah at a height of approximately four feet. The stone does not belong to the geology of the region and is a part of the original construction of the Ka`bah by Prophet Ibrahim (peace and blessings be upon him). The Black Stone was personally installed in the wall of the Ka`bah by the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) himself during its reconstruction following its destruction by a flash flood. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also kissed it during his Farewell Hajj. Thus, touching and kissing Hajar Al-Aswad during `Umrah and Hajj is considered sunnah.
HalqThe complete shaving of the head by the male pilgrim on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah. This is the last thing he does before getting out of the state of ihram. See also taqseer. For female pilgrims, the requirements of halq and taqseer are satisfied if they trim their hair by approximately half an inch.
Al-Haram Ash-Shareef The mosque around the Ka`bah in Makkah, also known as Al-Al-Masjid Al-Haram or just Al-Haram, as well as the mosque in Madinah. The latter, also known as Al-Masjid An-Nabawi (the Prophet’s Mosque), contains within its premises the grave of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him).
HateemThe area adjacent to the Ka`bah on its west side, enclosed by a low semi-circular wall. Tradition has it that Hajar (wife of Prophet Ibrahim [peace and blessings be upon him]) is buried in this enclosure. It is highly recommended that the pilgrim offer sunnah Prayer and supplications to Allah in this area. However, this is not a part of the official rites of Hajj.
Idtiba`The mode of ihram used during Tawaf Al-Qudum. The male pilgrim drapes one end of the top part of his ihram over his left shoulder back-to-front. The other end goes across his back, under his right arm, across his front, and is finally draped over his left shoulder. Idtiba` is not observed in any other type of Tawaf. Also, when the pilgrim offers sunnah Prayer after Tawaf Al-Qudum or an obligatory Prayer during this Tawaf, he must cover both his shoulders. In other words, idtiba` is practiced only while actually performing Tawaf Al-Qudum. Female pilgrims wear no ihram, so that the question of idtiba` for them does not arise.
IfradThe type of Hajj in which the pilgrim pronounces his intention to perform only Hajj (as opposed to Hajj and `Umrah) at the miqat while changing into ihram.
Ihram(1) The distinctive garb of the male pilgrim worn during `Umrah or Hajj. It consists of two pieces of white, plain and unsewn cloth. The lower piece, called an izar, is wrapped around the midriff to cover the body from just above the navel to the ankles. The other piece, called a ridaa’, is draped around the shoulders to cover the upper body. For women, their ordinary and unpretentious clothes of daily wear constitute their ihram. (2) The state of consecration of a pilgrim. While in ihram, the pilgrim may not use perfume or scented soap, shampoo, or lotion; engage in sexual intercourse or any type of foreplay; clip the nails; pluck, cut, or shave the hair.
lhsarAl-lhsar (as used in the Qur’an) means blocking the path to the House of Allah. Allah says, (And complete the Hajj or `Umrah in the service of Allah. But if you are prevented (from completing it) send an offering for sacrifice.) (Al-Baqarah 2:196)
IstilamThe act of kissing the Black Stone Al-Hajar Al-Aswad at the beginning and the end of every circuit of the Ka`bah during Tawaf. If it is not possible to kiss the Black Stone for any reason, the pilgrim may extend his hand to touch the Black Stone and then kiss his own hand. If even that is not possible, he may raise his hand towards the Black Stone and then kiss his own hand.
IzarLower cloth of the male pilgrim’s clothes.
JamaratThe three stone pillars in Mina that symbolically represent the locations where the devil (Shaytan) tried to tempt Prophet Ibrahim (peace and blessings be upon him) away from the path of Allah.  The pilgrim stones these pillars on the 10th through the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah in commemoration of the rejection of the devil by Prophet Ibrahim and of his steadfastness to the cause of Allah. The Jamarat are located within a few hundred feet of one another in a line and are named as follows:
Al-Jamrah Al-KubraThe last and biggest stone pillar in the line. This is also called Jamrat Al-`Aqabah.
Al-Jamrah Al-UlaThe first stone pillar in the line.
Al-Jamrah Al-WustaThe second (middle) stone pillar in the line.
Ka`bahA cubic structure originally built by Prophet Ibrahim (peace and blessings be upon him) and his eldest son Isma`il. It is now housed within Al-Haram Ash-Shareef in Makkah. During Hajj and `Umrah, the essential rite of Tawaf is performed around the Ka`bah. Every day, millions of Muslims perform Prayers (salah) facing the direction of the Ka`bah.
KaffarahAnother name for damm. The atonement required of a pilgrim for a willful violation of a prohibition or obligation while in the state of ihram.
KiswahThe black cloth that drapes the Ka`bah. It is embroidered in gold thread with the Shahadah, praises of Allah, and verses of the Qur’an.
MabrurAccepted. A Hajj mabur is one that is accepted by Allah. It is one in which Allah is not disobeyed during or after. For this reason others have said that a Hajj mabrur is one that is accepted, and the sign of its acceptance is that a person will go back in a better state than when he came, and that he will discontinue the sins that were between him and Allah.
MarwahA rocky hillock located approximately one hundred yards (91 meters) from the Ka`bah inside Al-Masjid Al-Haram. The pilgrim performs the devotional rite of Sa`i between the hillocks of Safa and Marwah.
MahramThe husband or close male relative of a woman to whom marriage is expressly prohibited by the Shari`ah (e.g., father, grandfather, brother, uncle, nephew).
Maqam IbrahimThe stepping stone used by Prophet Ibrahim (peace and blessings be upon him) during the original construction of the Ka`bah. The stone carries the imprints of his feet and is housed in a glass enclosure on the north side of the Ka`bah.
Al-Masjid Al-HaramThe mosque around the Ka`bah, also known as Al-Haram or Al-Haram Ash-Shareef.
Mas`aaThe distance between Safa and Marwah. See also Sa`i.
MiqatAn imaginary boundary around Makkah. A prospective pilgrim cannot cross this boundary without first changing into ihram. This boundary is anchored by different townships and localities in different directions (Dhul-Hulayfah in the north, Yalamlam in the southeast, Dhatu `Irq in the northeast, Juhfah in the northwest, Qarn Al-Manazil in the east). The pilgrim changes into ihram at or before the miqat and pronounces his intention to perform `Umrah or Hajj. For people permanently living inside the miqat, their place of residence is their miqat.
MinaA desert location approximately three miles (4.8 km) east of Makkah where several rites of Hajj are performed.
MutawwifA knowledgeable professional who can guide the pilgrim during Hajj.
MuhrimA pilgrim in the state of ihram.
MultazamThe part of the Ka`bah between its door and the Black Stone. This is an especially sacred part of the Ka`bah. It is recommended that, if possible, the pilgrim touch the Ka`bah at Multazam and offer supplications to Allah. However, this is not a part of the official rites of Hajj.
Mutamatti `One who is performing or has performed tamattu` Hajj (see below).
MutawwifA knowledgeable professional who can guide the pilgrim during Hajj. Also called a mu`allim.
MuzdalifahA desert location approximately midway between Mina and `Arafah. The pilgrim spends the night of the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah there.
NamirahA mosque in `Arafah.
NiyyahIntention. All acts of worship are preceded by an appropriate niyyah.
QarinOne who is performing or has performed qiran Hajj (see below).
QasrThe mode of shortened Prayers usually offered when on a journey.
QiblahThe direction (towards the Ka`bah) that Muslims face when performing ritual Prayers (salah).
QiranThe type of Hajj in which the pilgrim pronounces his intention to perform both `Umrah and Hajj and Hajj together with the same ihram at the miqat.
RamalThe ritual in which male pilgrims are required to walk briskly with their chests thrust forward and with their shoulders rolling slightly during the first three circuits of Tawaf Al-Qudum. Women are not required to perform ramal.
Ridaa’The upper piece of ihram.
Rami The act of symbolically stoning the devil (Shaytan) in Mina on 10 through 13 Dhul-Hijjah. This commemorates the tradition that Prophet Ibrahim (peace and blessings be upon him) was tempted three times by the devil but rejected all three of the devil’s attempts by stoning him and driving him away. These three locations are symbolized by three stone pillars (Jamarat) in Mina.
SafaA small hillock approximately half a mile (0.8 km) from the Ka`bah, inside Al-Masjid Al-Haram. The pilgrim performs the ritual of Sa`i (walking) between Safa and Marwah.
Sa`iThe ritual of walking seven times back and forth between the rocky hillocks of Safa and Marwah. This act retraces the footsteps of Hajar (wife of Prophet Ibrahim [peace and blessings be upon him]) during her desperate search for water to quench the thirst of her infant son Isma`il after they were left in the desert by Prophet Ibrahim (peace and blessings be upon him) in response to a divine vision.
SalahRitual Prayers. The obligatory Prayers are performed five times a day.
ShawtOne complete circumambulation, or circuit, of the Ka`bah. Each circuit starts and ends at the Black Stone. Seven circuits constitute one Tawaf.
TalbiyahA recital of the following words by the pilgrim during `Umrah and Hajj: Labbayka, Allahumma, labbayk. Labbayka. La shareeka laka. Labbayk. Inna-l-hamda, wa-n-ni`mata, laka-l mulk. La shareeka lak. Translation: Here I am at Your service, O Lord, here I am. Here I am at Your service. You have no partners. Yours alone is all praise and all bounty, and Yours alone is sovereignty. You have no partners. The Talbiyah is a prayer as well as an assertion of the pilgrim’s conviction that he intends to perform Hajj only for the glory of Allah. The pilgrim starts the recital upon changing into the ihram and continues to recite it frequently throughout Hajj. Male pilgrims recite the Talbiyah loudly whereas female pilgrims are required to recite it in a low voice.
Tamattu`The type of Hajj in which the pilgrim pronounces his intention to perform only `Umrah at the miqat when changing into ihram. The pilgrim performs `Umrah and then goes out of ihram until the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah. On that day, the pilgrim makes a second intention and a second change into ihram for the performance of the remaining rites of Hajj.
TaqseerShortening or clipping of the whole head of hair by the male pilgrim following the completion of Hajj. This may be performed in lieu of halq (shaving). However, snipping off a few hairs here and there is not acceptable. The sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) supports only taqseer and halq.
TawafThe seven-circuit circumambulation of the Ka`bah while reciting prayers. It constitutes an integral part of `Umrah and Hajj. There are five different types of Tawaf (see below).
Tawaf Al-IfadahThe Tawaf performed by the pilgrim on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah as the last formal rite of Hajj in Makkah after changing into street clothes. Also called Tawaf Az-Ziyarah.
Tawaf An-NaflA devotional Tawaf that may be performed any time.
Tawaf Al-QudumThe initial Tawaf performed by the pilgrim upon entering Al- Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah pursuant upon his intention for Hajj.
Tawaf Al-`Umrah The Tawaf performed as a rite of `Umrah.
Tawaf Al-Wada `The Farewell Tawaf performed by the pilgrim just before leaving Makkah for his next destination.
`Umrah A set of religious and devotional rites performed in Makkah.   `Umrah, or lesser Hajj, can be performed at any time of the year and, unlike Hajj, does not involve the rites at Mina, Muzdalifah, and `Arafah.
waqfahThe ritual of standing before Allah at the Mount of Mercy in `Arafah. It is a central rite of Hajj.
Wudu’The ablution that is performed prior to ritual Prayer.
Ziyarah A visit to the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah, usually before or after hajj or `Umrah. It is not a part of the Hajj or `Umrah rites, but many pilgrims include this visit in their journey.
ZamzamThe spring of water that sprang forth miraculously under the feet of the infant Isma`il (peace and blessings be upon him) during his mother’s frantic search for water between Safa and Marwah. Zamzam is now enclosed in a marble chamber in the Ka`bah.